Stress testing

Stress testing is the process of running various work loads on a computer to assess its stability. This is often used to reliably check the stability of overclocked/undervolted hardware and monitor the thermal behavior of the system (e.g. maximum temperatures, throttling, noise levels). There are several programs available to stress test various parts of the system such as CPU, GPU, RAM, and storage, using different types of work loads.

Stress testing tasks

The table below lists some stress testing software based on the kind of test and the overall intensity of the work load. It is important to stress test using mixed loads to verify stability under many use cases.

Warning: Before proceeding, it is highly recommended that users have some means to monitor the system temperatures. See Sensors.
Work loadTested hardware1TaskDescription
CPU, storageUpdating patchesCustom script Refreshing hundreds of kernel patches in the OpenWRT project. See #Updating patches for OpenWRT.
CPU, storageWriting a disk imageSee #Writing to an image file.
RAMMemory stressingSee #MemTest86+.
CPU, RAM, storageCompilationParallel compilation is a good way to stress test the CPU. See #GCC.
CPU, RAMVideo encodingffmpeg, x264, , etc. can be used to encode video. See #Video encoding.
CPU, RAMCryptocurrencies mining - xmrig --stress will use different cryptocurrency mining algorithms (based on CPU model) to generate the highest possible load. A good way to test stability and temperatures.
GPU3D renderingunigine-heavenAUR is a GPU benchmark that runs in a loop. It is a decent stress test for GPUs. See Benchmarking#Graphics.
rowspan="5" CPU, RAM, storageSynthetic stressing is a simple CPU, memory, I/O, and disk workload generator implemented in C. See #stress.
CPU, RAMPrime numbers calculationmprime-binAUR factors large numbers and is an excellent way to stress CPU and memory. See #MPrime.
CPUAlgebra calculationlinpackAUR - Linpack makes use of the BLAS (Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms) libraries for performing basic vector and matrix operations. and is an excellent way to stress CPUs for stability. See #Linpack.
CPUPi decimals calculation Systester is a multithreaded piece of software capable of deriving values of pi out to 128,000,000 decimal places. It has built in check for system stability. See #Systester.
RAMMemory stressing is a memory interface test.
  • 1 The main target of the test, virtually all testing will also involve the CPU and RAM to some extent.
  • 2 Light tests do not push the components very hard (in terms of power/heat limits). These tests are still useful to test how the hardware behaves in lower power levels (P states), in particular for undervolted systems.
  • 3 Realistic tests are based on real world workloads.
  • 4 Synthetic tests are explicitely designed to torture the hardware as much as possible and may not be representative of real world workloads.

Updating patches for OpenWRT

A good stability test of a low load workload is to run though updating the patch sets in the OpenWRT project. Follow these steps.

git clone --depth 1
cd openwrt
mkdir -p staging_dir/host/bin
cp /usr/bin/sed ./staging_dir/host/bin
curl -Os
chmod +x
./ -v -u 5.4


performs a loop that calculates the square root of a random number in order to stress the CPU. It can run simultaneously several workers to load all the cores of a CPU for example. It can also generate memory, I/O or disk workload depending on the parameters passed. The FAQ provides examples and explanations.

To spawn 4 workers working on calculating a square root, use the command:

$ stress --cpu 4


is a lightweight stress-testing program written by CodeLog that stimulates the processor by computing the Ackermann function.


MPrime (also known as Prime95 in its Windows and MacOS implementation) is recognised universally as one defacto measure of system stability. MPrime under torture test mode will perform a series of very CPU intensive calculations and compare the values it gets to known good values.

The Linux implementation is called .

To run mprime, simply open a shell and type "mprime":

$ mprime

When the software loads, simply answer 'N' to the first question to begin the torture testing:

There are several options for the torture test (menu option 15).

  • Small FFTs (option 1) to stress the CPU
  • In-place large FFTs (option 2) to test the CPU and memory controller
  • Blend (option 3) is the default and constitutes a hybrid mode which stresses the CPU and RAM.

Errors will be reported should they occur both to stdout and to ~/results.txt for review later. Many do not consider a system as 'stable' unless it can run the Large FFTs for a 24 hour period.

Example ~/results.txt; note that the two runs from 26-June indicate a hardware failure. In this case, due to insufficient vcore to the CPU:


linpackAUR makes use of the BLAS (Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms) libraries for performing basic vector and matrix operations. It is an excellent way to stress CPUs for stability (only Intel CPUs are supported). After installation, users should copy to and adjust it according to the amount of memory on the system.


(aka SuperPi for Windows) is available in both CLI and GUI version. It tests system stability by calculating up to 128 millions of Pi digits and includes error checking. Note that one can select from two different calculation algorithms: Quadratic Convergence of Borwein and Gauss-Legendre. The latter being the same method that the popular SuperPi for Windows uses.

A CLI example using 8 threads is given:

$ systester-cli -gausslg 64M -threads 8

Intel Processor Diagnostic Tool

The Intel Processor Diagnostic Tool is a tool that verifies the functionality of an Intel Microprocessor by stress testing the CPU. A Fedora Linux LiveUSB ISO images are available. The LiveUSB image allows you to stress test your machine without using your main operating system; such method might be useful in extreme cases especially when dealing with cold reboots/crashes.

Burn the image to a USB stick by using dd or Gnome Disks and then boot the Live CD. Once booted, open the terminal and type the following command to install Intel Processor Diagnostic Tool for 64-bit machines:

$ install64

Once it is installed, you can run the Diagnostic Tool by clicking on the IPDT Icon that is located on the desktop.


Use MemTest86 (proprietary) or Memtest86+ (GPL) to test your memory (RAM). There are "new" and "old" testers:

  • "New" versions do not support BIOS. For a new version, use a proprietary MemTest86 version greater or equal to 8. Install it as or boot the Arch Linux install image.
  • "Old" versions do not support UEFI nor DDR4. Old versions are available as GPL (development discontinued). It is roughly equal to proprietary MemTest86 version 4. After installation, update GRUB: it will auto-detect the package and allow users to boot directly to it.
  • A reliable source of the version history is the history page in, in particular the section "MemTest86 and MemTest86+" and the following paragraph. Notice the proprietary MemTest86 from version 5 through 7 claims to support both BIOS and UEFI, but they simply bundle old and new versions.
  • Allowing tests to run for at least 10 cycles without errors is usually sufficient.

Writing to an image file

A good stability test under a low load workload is using dd to format an image. This can be a physical disk or a loop mounted image. The script below uses mounted image and cycles through each core one-by-one. Note that you should adjust the variables in the top of script to match your system. By default the script will run the command just once per core. It can be easily customised to run on known-weak cores rather than scanning all core 0 through n by altering the for loop. Run the script as root.


Parallel compilation using GCC (or other compilers) will generate a heavy load on the CPU and memory. To avoid I/O bottlenecking, compile on a SSD or in a tmpfs.

The example below will compile the Linux kernel.

pacman -Syu asp
asp export linux
cd linux
makepkg -sf MAKEFLAGS="-j$(nproc)"

Video encoding

Most video encoders are highly parallel and are designed to use most of a CPU's capabilities. The example below will encode noise using x265, and discard the result. This will heavily load the CPU.

ffmpeg -y -f rawvideo -video_size 1920x1080 -pixel_format yuv420p -framerate 60 -i /dev/urandom -c:v libx265 -preset placebo -f matroska /dev/null

Discovering Errors

Some stressing applications like #MPrime or #Linpack have built in consistency checks to discover errors due to non-matching results. A more general and simple method for measuring hardware instabilities can be found in the kernel itself. To use it, simply filter the journal on a crash like so:

# journalctl -k --grep=mce

Multicore chips can also give info as to which physical/logical core gave the error. This can be important if users are optimizing settings on a per-core basis.

The kernel can throw these errors while the stressing application is running, before it ends the calculation and reports the error, thus providing a very sensitive method to assess stability. Consider the following from a Ryzen 5900X:

mce: [Hardware Error]: Machine check events logged
mce: [Hardware Error]: CPU 21: Machine Check: 0 Bank 5: baa0000000030150
mce: [Hardware Error]: TSC 0 MISC d012000100000000 SYND 4d000002 IPID 500b000000000
mce: [Hardware Error]: PROCESSOR 2:a20f10 TIME 1625265814 SOCKET 0 APIC 4 microcode a201016

This chip as 12 physical cores. In this case, CPU 21 can be traced back to physical core 10. Use lstopo from to print the hardware topology.

Core 0 = CPU 0 + CPU 1
Core 1 = CPU 2 + CPU 3
Core 2 = CPU 4 + CPU 5
Core 3 = CPU 6 + CPU 7
Core 4 = CPU 8 + CPU 9
Core 5 = CPU 10 + CPU 11
Core 6 = CPU 12 + CPU 13
Core 7 = CPU 14 + CPU 15
Core 8 = CPU 16 + CPU 17
Core 9 = CPU 18 + CPU 19
Core 10 = CPU 20 + CPU 21
Core 11 = CPU 22 + CPU 23
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