Al-Hakim al-Nishapuri

Abu Abd-Allah Muhammad ibn Abd-Allah al-Hakim al-Nishapuri (Persian: أبو عبدالله محمد بن عبدالله الحاكم النيسابوري; 933 - 1014 CE), also known as Ibn al-Bayyiʿ,[4] was a Persian[5] Sunni scholar and the leading traditionist of his age, frequently referred to as the "Imam of the Muhaddithin" or the "Muhaddith of Khorasan."

Al-Hakim Nishapuri
Born3 March 933 CE (3 Rabi'-ul-Awwal 321 AH)
Died1 September 1014 CE (3 Safar 405 AH)
EraIslamic golden age
Main interest(s)Hadith
Notable work(s)Mustadrak al-Hakim
Muslim leader
Influenced by


Al-Hakim, from Nishapur, had vast numbers of teachers[6] in Khurasan, Iraq, Transoxiana and elsewhere. His students included al-Bayhaqi.[7]

Al-Hakim wrote Al-Mustadrak ala al-Sahihayn. He started writing it in the year when he was 72 years old. He reputedly said: "I drank water from Zamzam Well and asked God for excellence in writing books".


On the 3rd of Safar 405 al-Hakim went into the bath, came out after bathing, said, "Ah," and died wearing but a waist-cloth before he had time to put on a shirt. Later, one of al-Hakim's students, Al-Hasan ibn Ash`ath al-Qurashî said: "I saw al-Hâkim in my dream riding a horse in a handsome appearance and saying: 'Salvation.' I asked him: `Al-Hakim! In what?' He replied: 'Writing hadith.'" [8] His funeral prayer was led by Abu Bakr al-Hiri, Qadi of Nishapur.[9]


Shah Waliullah stated that:[10]

A mujaddid appears at the end of every century: The mujaddid of the 1st century was Imam of Ahlul Sunnah, Umar bin Abdul Aziz. The mujaddid of the 2nd century was Imam of Ahlul Sunnah Muhammad Idrees Shafi'i. The mujaddid of the 3rd century was Imam of Ahlul Sunnah Abu Hasan Ash'ari. The mujaddid of the 4th century was Abu Abdullah Hakim Nishapuri.

The Shafi'i hadith specialist Ibn al-Salah honours al-Hakim as one of the 'seven compilers of useful compilations' who has the distinction of being one of the few men to have compiled significant works in all three genres of hadith literature.[11]

The Shafi'i historian al-Dhahabi calls him "the great hafiz and imam of the traditionists".[12]

Despite this, he had been accused of being a Shi'a, but al-Subki stoutly denies this.[12] He rejects the label of Shi`i as baseless because Ibn Asakir includes al-Hakim among the Asharis, who consider the Shias as innovators. Others noted to al-Hakim's sincerity in narrating hadith as the first hadith al-Hâkim narrated is:

May Allah make radiant the face of one who heard one of my sayings and then carried it to others. It may be that one carries understanding without being a person of understanding; it may be that one carries understanding to someone who possesses more understanding than he.


He authored the following works among others:

  • Al-Abwâb ("The Chapters")
  • Al-Amâlî ("The Dictations")
  • Amâlî al-`Ashiyyât ("Night Dictations")
  • Fadâ'il al-Shâfi`î ("The Immense Merits of al-Shâfi`î")
  • Fawâ'id al-Nusakh ("Benefits of the Copies")
  • Fawâ'id al-Khurâsâniyyîn ("Benefits of the People of Khurâsân")
  • Al-Iklîl fî Dalâ'il al-Nubuwwa ("The Diadem: The Marks of Prophethood")
  • Al-`Ilal ("The Defects of Hadîth")
  • Mâ Tafarrada bi Ikhrâjihi Kullu Wâhidin min al-Imâmayn ("Reports Found Only in al-Bukhârî or Only in Muslim")
  • Al-Madkhal ilâ `Ilm al-Sahîh ("Introduction to the Science of Sound Reports")
  • Ma`rifat Anwâ` `Ulûm al-Hadîth ("Knowledge of the Different Types of the Hadîth Sciences")
  • Al-Mustadrak `alâ al-Sahîhayn ("Supplement for What is Missing From al-Bukhârî and Muslim")
  • Muzakkâ al-Akhbâr ("Verified Reports")
  • Al-Sahîhân ("The Two Books of sahîh Hadîths")
  • Al-Talkhîs ("The Summary")
  • Tarâjim al-Musnad `alâ Shart al-Sahîhayn ("The Reports of Ahmad's Musnad That Match the Criteria of the Two Books of Sahîh")
  • Tarâjim al-Shuyûkh ("Biographies of the Shaykhs")
  • Târîkh `Ulamâ' Ahl Naysabûr ("History of the Scholars of Naysabûr")

See also


  1. Bulliet, Richard (1970). "A quantitative approach to medieval Muslim biographical dictionaries". Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. 13 (1): 195–211. doi:10.1163/156852070X00123. The great Ash'ari theological school was flourishing under Abu at-Tayyib as-Su'laki (d. 398), Ibn Furak (d. 406), al-Hakim an-Naisaburi (d. 405) and Abu Ishaq al-Isfara'ini
  2. "Ahl al-Sunna: The Ash'aris - The Testimony and Proofs of the Scholars".
  3. Constructive Critics, Ḥadīth Literature, and the Articulation of Sunnī Islam, By Scott C. Lucas,pg. 98
  4. "Al-Hakim's Mustadrak & al-Dhahabî's Talkhis". Islamtoday.Com. Archived from the original on 13 October 2008.
  5. Frye, Richard N., ed. (1975). The Cambridge history of Iran, Volume 4 (Repr ed.). London: Cambridge University Press. p. 471. ISBN 978-0-521-20093-6.
  6. Brief Biographies of the Eminent Scholars of Hadeeth Archived 2006-04-27 at the Wayback Machine
  7. Constructive Critics, Ḥadīth Literature, and the Articulation of Sunnī Islam, by Scott C. Lucas, pg.98
  8. Haddad, G. F. (2003). "Six Muslim Scholars". Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  9. Al-Dhahabi, Siyar A’lamin Nubala 17/177
  10. Izalat al-Khafa p. 77 part 7
  11. Lucas, Scott C. Constructive Critics, Ḥadīth Literature, and the Articulation of Sunnī Islam. Brill. p. 98.
  12. Lewis, B.; Menage, V.L.; Pellat, Ch.; Schacht, J. (1986) [1st. pub. 1971]. Encyclopaedia of Islam. Vol. III (H-Iram) (New ed.). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 82. ISBN 9004081186.
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