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The chapter deals with the phenomenon of hypocrisy. It criticizes hypocrisy and condemns the hypocrites. It also exhorts the Believers to be sincere in their faith and make charity. According to Muslim theologian, Javed Ahmad Ghamidi, the theme of Qur'an 63 is to inform the Muslims that the Hypocrites are absolute liars. Amin Ahsan Islahi elaborates that:
- This surah is a supplement to Surah Jum`ah, the previous surah. It can be divided into two sections. The first one consists of eight verses, while the last three verses constitute the second section. In the first section, the character of the hypocrites is evaluated and shown that their real ailment is their lust for worldly riches. In the second section, Muslims are warned that the love of wealth and children should not make them indifferent to the remembrance of the Almighty. If today they do not truly benefit from their wealth by not spending in the way of Allah, they will feel sorry, once their life ends and at that moment their regret will be of no use to them. In other words, in the first section the illness of hypocrisy is elaborated upon, while in the second section, Muslims are asked to guard themselves against it.
Asbāb al-nuzūl (occasions or circumstances of revelation) is a secondary genre of Qur'anic exegesis (tafsir) directed at establishing the context in which specific verses of the Qur'an were revealed. Though of some use in reconstructing the Qur'an's historicity, asbāb is by nature an exegetical rather than a historiographical genre, and as such usually associates the verses it explicates with general situations rather than specific events. A hadith recorded by Muhammad al-Bukhari which narrates the occasion of revelation of this surah is as follows.
- Narrated Zayd ibn Arqam: While I was with my uncle, I heard Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy saying, "Do not spend on those who are with Allah's Messenger, that they may disperse and go away (from him). And if we return to Medina, surely, the more honorable will expel therefrom the meaner. "I mentioned that to my uncle who, in turn, mentioned it to the Prophet. The Prophet called me and I told him about that. Then he sent for Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy and his companions, and they swore that they did not say so. The Prophet disbelieved my statement and believed theirs. I was distressed as I have never been before, and I remained in my house. My uncle said to me, "You just wanted the Prophet to consider you a liar and hate you." Then Allah revealed:-- 'When the hypocrites come to you, they say: 'We bear witness that you are indeed the Apostle of Allah." (63.1) So the Prophet sent for me and recited it and said, "Allah has confirmed your statement."
Hadith about Al-Munafiqun
The first and foremost exegesis/tafsir of the Qur'an is found in hadith of Muhammad. Although some scholars, including ibn Taymiyyah, claim that Muhammad has commented on the whole of the Qur'an, others including Ghazali cite the limited amount of narratives, thus indicating that he has commented only on a portion of the Qur'an. Ḥadīth (حديث) is literally "speech" or "report", that is a recorded saying or tradition of Muhammad validated by isnad; with Sirah Rasul Allah these comprise the sunnah and reveal shariah. According to Aishah, the life of Prophet Muhammad was practical implementation of Qur'an. Therefore, mention in hadith elevates the importance of the pertinent surah from a certain perspective.
- Ibn Abi Rafi' said: Abu Hurairah led us in the Friday prayer and recited Surah Al-Jumua and "When the hypocrites come to you" (Al-Munafiqun) in the last rak'ah. He said: I met Abu Hurairah when he finished the prayer and said to him: You recited the two surah that Ali ibn Abi Talib used to recite at Kufa. Abu Hurairah said: I heard the Messenger of Allah reciting them on Friday.
- "The Meaning of the Glorious Qur'ân,: 63. al-Munafiqun: The Hypocrites". www.sacred-texts.com.
- Behnam Sadeghi & Mohsen Goudarzi, "Sana'a and the Origins of the Qu'ran", Der Islam, 87 (2012), 37.
- Dr. Muzammil H. Siddiqi. "A Thematic Introduction to the Surahs of the Qur'an | SoundVision.com". www.soundvision.com.
- "An Analysis of the Meanings of the Surahs of Group six (Part 2/2) | Imam Amin Ahsan Islahi". www.al-mawrid.org.
- Rev. E. M. Wherry, M.A., A Complete Index to Sale's Text, Preliminary Discourse, and Notes
- Sahih Bukhari USC-MSA web (English) reference: Vol. 6, Book 60, Hadith 427 Arabic reference: Book 65, Hadith 4904
- Şatibi, El-muvafakat
- Muhsin Demirci, Tefsir Usulü, 120
- Grade : Sahih (Al-Albani) صحيح (الألباني) حكم : Reference : Sunan Abu Dawud 1342 In-book reference : Book 5, Hadith 93 English translation : Book 5, Hadith 1337
- Al-Adab al-Mufrad » Dealings with people and good character – كتاب English reference : Book 14, Hadith 308 Arabic reference : Book 1, Hadith 308
- Sahih Al- Jami' AI-Saghir, No.4811
- Sunan Ibn Majah 2333 In-book reference : Book 13, Hadith 26 English translation : Vol. 3, Book 13, Hadith 2333
- Grade : Sahih (Darussalam) Reference : Sunan an-Nasa'i 1601 In-book reference : Book 20, Hadith 4 English translation : Vol. 2, Book 20, Hadith 1602
- Sunan Abu Dawud 1075 In-book reference : Book 2, Hadith 686 English translation : Book 2, Hadith 1070
- Sunan Abu Dawud Grade : Sahih (Al-Albani) Reference : Sunan Abi Dawud 1124 In-book reference : Book 2, Hadith 735 English translation : Book 2, Hadith 1119
- Sunan Ibn Majah English reference : Vol. 1, Book 5, Hadith 1118 Arabic reference : Book 5, Hadith 1172
- Sunan al-Tirmidhi 519 In-book reference : Book 4, Hadith 32 English translation : Vol. 1, Book 4, Hadith 519
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