At-Tawbah (Arabic: ٱلتوبة, at-Tawbah; meaning: The Repentance),[1] also known as Bara'ah (Arabic: براءة, Barāʾah; meaning: Repudiation),[2][3] is the ninth chapter (sūrah) of the Quran. It contains 129 verses (āyāt) and is one of the last Medinan surahs.

Sura 9 of the Quran
The Repentance
Other namesBara'ah ("Repudiation")
PositionJuzʼ 10 to 11
Hizb no.19 to 21
No. of Rukus16
No. of verses129
No. of Sajdahsnone

This Surah is reported to have been revealed at the time of the Battle of Tabuk in Madinah in the 9th year of the Hijrah. The Sanaa manuscript preserves some verses, on parchment radiocarbon dated to between 578/44bh and 669/49ah.[4][5]

It is the only Surah of the Quran that does not begin with Bismillah, the usual opening formula, In the name of Allah, the All-Merciful, the All-Compassionate. It deals with almost the same topics as those dealt with in Surat al-Anfal. In contrast to all other surahs, Muhammad did not order that this formula should be put at the beginning of this surah.[6]


  • 1-2 Four months’ immunity proclaimed to idolaters
  • 3-5 After four months, all idolaters to be slain, with exception of those with whom treaties have been made
  • 5-6 Ignorant idolators to be taught the religion of Islam, after which, if they repent, they are to be spared alive
  • 7 No new league to be made with idolaters
  • 8-10 Idolators are not to be trusted
  • 11 Penitent idolators to be regarded as brethren
  • 13-16 Muslims exhorted to fight against the truce-breakers of Makkah
  • 17-18 All but Muslims to be excluded from the sacred temples
  • 19 Abbás rebuked for his vainglory
  • 20-22 The Muhájjirín assigned the first rank among Muslims—their reward
  • 23-24 True believers to refuse friendship with nearest kin if they be infidels
  • 25-27 The victory of Hunain due to God’s help
  • 28 Idolators excluded from the Kaabah
  • 29 The Jews and Christians as well as idolators to be attacked (if they refuse to pay the Jizya tax)
  • 30 Jews and Christians reproved for applying the epithet “Son of God” to Ezra and Jesus
  • 31-32 They also worship their priests and monks
  • 33 Islam superior to all other religions
  • 34-35 Stingy Muslims likened to covetous monks—their punishment
  • 36 Infidels may be attacked in sacred months
  • 37 The sacred months not to be transferred
  • 38-39 Muslims exhorted to go on expedition to Tabúq by reference to God’s help to Muhammad and Abu Bakr in the cave
  • 40 This verse speaking about the help of Allah by sending the invisible army of war, particularly mentioning the battle of Badr.[7] According to Muhammad Sulaiman al-Ashqar from Islamic University of Madinah, who quoted several contemporary and classical scholars, the invisible army here were the Angels army consisted of Gabriel,[1][8] Michael, Raphael[9] [Notes 1][Notes 2] and thousands of best angels from third level of sky, all came to the battle of Badr by impersonating appearance of Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, companion of Muhammad.[Notes 3][14] are deemed as his other personal virtue and venerable status according to Islamic belief.[15][16][Notes 4][18][19] Meanwhile, Mahdi Rizqullah has compiled the commentary from classical Islamic scholars, that the verse narration about the angels attendance in the battle were also supported by hadiths from hadith collection from Muslim ibn Hajjaj, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, and the also from Quranic historiography work by Ibn Kathir.[20] Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani gave commentary of another supportive narration from al-Baihaqi and Ibn Ishaq, through various hadith narration chains about the testimony from several different sahabah.[20] This included the narration of Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib who at that time fought on the side of Qurayshite polytheist, who testified that he has been taken captive on the aftermath of the battle by a horse rider whom he did not recognize at all from Muslims rank. According to the hadith authority from Ahmad ibn Hanbal, The captor of Abbas were confirmed by Muhammad as one of the angel who helped the muslims during this battle.[20][Notes 5]
  • 41 Muslims exhorted to go on expedition to Tabúq by reference to God’s help to Muhammad and Abu Bakr in the cave
  • 42 The lukewarm Muslims rebuked for wishing to stay at home
  • 43 Muhammad rebuked for excusing some of these from going
  • 44-46 Willingness to fight for Muhammad, a test of faith
  • 47-50 Seditious Muslims rebuked
  • 51-52 The sure reward of the faithful
  • 53-55 God refuses the offerings of infidels and hypocrites
  • 55 The wealth and prosperity of infidels a sign of their reprobation
  • 56-57 Half-hearted Muslims reproved
  • 58-59 Those who had spread libellous reports regarding Muhammad’s use of alms rebuked
  • 60 How alms should be expended
  • 61-69 Grumblers and hypocrites threatened
  • 70 They are warned by the example of the wicked in former ages
  • 71-73 The faithful described—their rewards
  • 74-75 Hypocrites denounced and threatened
  • 76-79 Prosperity of infidels a prelude to their destruction
  • 80 God shall scoff at the scoffers
  • 81 The defamers of the faithful shall never be forgiven
  • 82-84 Punishment of the “stayers at home”
  • 85 Muhammad forbidden to pray at the grave of unbelievers and hypocrites
  • 86-88 The Prophet not to wonder at the prosperity of the wicked
  • 89-90 Reward of those who assist the Apostle in his wars
  • 91 Hypocritical Arabs of the desert reproved
  • 92-93 Who may lawfully remain at home in time of war
  • 94-97 Other hypocrites reproved
  • 98-99 The Baduín, the worst of hypocrites
  • 100 Some of them true believers
  • 101 The reward of the Ansars and Muhájjirín
  • 102 The desert Arabs and some of the people of Madína reproved
  • 103-106 The penitent confessors in Madína are pardoned
  • 107 Others await God’s decision in their case
  • 108-111 Denunciation against those who built a Masjid in opposition to Muhammad and his faithful ones
  • 112-113 True believers are sold to God
  • 114 Muslims not to pray for idolatrous relatives
  • 115 Why Abraham prayed for his idolatrous parents
  • 116-118 God merciful to the faithful
  • 119 The three recreant Ansars pardoned
  • 120-122 The people of Madína rebuked for want of loyalty to Muhammad
  • 123 Some believers excused from going to war
  • 124 True believers to war against neighbouring infidels and hypocrisy
  • 125-128 Reproof of those who doubt the revelations of God and Muhammad
  • 129-130 The Apostle trusts in the help of God [22]

According to Zayd ibn Thabit, when the Qu'ran was first being compiled, he found the last verses of this Surah in the possession of Abu al-h al-Ansari and no one else.[23][24] In another account, Ubay ibn Ka'b informed Zayd that Muhammad taught him the end of this sūrah and recited the same verses.[25] Some, like Ibn Hazm, suggested that Abu Khuzayma was the only one to have the last verses in written form, as Zayd and others had memorized them.[25] In a continuum of Surah Al-Anfal, this Surah additionally manages the issues of harmony and war and puts together the subject with respect to the Tabuk Expedition.The Significant Issues, Divine Laws and pieces of Guidance incorporated in this surah are as follows

  1. Policy guidelines for Muslims pertaining the mushriks.
  2. Instructions to participate in Jihad.
  3. Guidelines about hypocrisy, feeble faith, and carelessness.
  4. Battle of Tabuk.
  5. Foundation of a Dar-ul-Islam (an Islamic state).
  6. Stretching out the impact of Islam to abutting nations.
  7. Pulverizing the underhandedness of the hypocrites.
  8. Setting up the Muslims for a battle in the reason for Islam.


This Surah is known by two names - At-Taubah and Al-Bara'at. It is called At-Taubah in light of the fact that it articulates taubah (atonement) and informs about the conditions of its acceptance.(vv. 102. 118). The second name Bara'at (Release) is taken from the opening word of the Surah.[26]

Omission of Bismillah

Out of all 114 Surahs of the Quran this is the only one to which Bismillah is not prefixed.[6][27] Among the explanations put forward for his not doing so, the most commonly accepted according to Unal is that, like the Islamic salutation, Peace be upon you, the expression, In the Name of God, the All-Merciful, the All-Compassionate conveys security and giving of quarter to those addressed.[6] However, Surat at-Tawbah begins with an ultimatum to certain polytheists in Arabia. It deals, for the most part, with a re-evaluation of the relations with the polytheists who were frequently violating their agreements, the campaign to Tabuk, a disclosure of the intrigues of the hypocrites in Madinah(9:64-67, 101), the importance of jihad in God's cause(9:24), and relationships with the People of the Book.[28]

Periods of revelation

This Surah includes three Discourses :-

From opening up to the 37th ayat, the initial talk,[29] was uncovered in Zil-Qa'adah A.H. 9. As the significance of the subject of the talk required its affirmation on the event of Hajj Muhammad dispatched Ali to follow Abu Bakr, who had just left for Makkah to lead the Pilgrims to the Ka'abah. He trained Ali to convey the talk before the representatives of the various clans of Arabia in order to advise them regarding the new policy guidelines pertinent to the mushriks.

Starting from ayat 38 up to 72nd ayat the subsequent talk[30] was revealed during Rajab A.H. 9 or a little before this, when Muhammad was occupied with getting ready for the Campaign of Tabuk. The Believers were encouraged to take a dynamic part in Jihad, and the shirkers were seriously reproached for keeping down their riches and for wavering to forfeit their lives in the path for Allah due to their hypocrisy, powerless belief(iman) or carelessness.

The final section of ayaat 73rd to last,[31] was uncovered on his return from the Campaign of Tabuk. There are a few pieces revealed in different events during the same time frame and were incorporated by Muhammad into the Surah as per instructions from Allah. This talk cautions the hypocrites of their malevolent deeds and censures those Believers who had remained behind in the Campaign of Tabuk. At that point in the wake of berating them, Allah exculpates those genuine Believers who had not partaken in the Jihad in the Way of Allah for one explanation or the other.


Verses 9:2 - 9:6

The Quran, chapter 9 (At-Tawba), verses 2–6:[32]

So travel freely, [O disbelievers], throughout the land [during] four months (2) ... So if you repent, that is best for you; ... And give tidings to those who disbelieve of a painful punishment. (3) ... Excepted are those with whom you made a treaty among the polytheists and then they have not been deficient toward you in anything or supported anyone against you; so complete for them their treaty until their term [has ended]. (4) ... And when the sacred months have passed, then kill the polytheists wherever you find them and capture them and besiege them and sit in wait for them at every place of ambush. But if they should repent, establish prayer, and give zakah, let them [go] on their way. (5) ... And if any one of the polytheists seeks your protection, then grant him protection so that he may hear the words of Allah. Then deliver him to his place of safety. That is because they are a people who do not know. (6)
translated by Sahih International

Quran 9:5 is termed as the Sword Verse. The journalist Arun Shourie has criticized this and many other verses from the Quran contending that the Sunnah and the Hadith are equally evocative in their support of Jihad.[33] Many mainstream Islamic scholars, however, assert that this verse relates to a very specific event in early Islamic history i.e. the covenant that was made and consecutively broken by the polytheist tribes of Mecca[34]:74-91 , while they very easily bypass the fact that Quran is often quoted by Islamic scholars to be the book perfect for all times and all places and all humans., and if it is so, it's verses never need a historical context at all. On the other hand, even if the Quran are not supposed to have a historic contextual explanation the context provided (such as the unfaithfulness in pacts and treatises) are mentioned in the previous verses, thus a part of the Quran itself instead of an "out-world" context relations. According to Asma Afsaruddin, citing various early exegetes' opinions regarding the Arab polytheists, the consensus among the earliest commentators has been that this does not translate into indiscriminate killing.[34]:88-89

Mujāhid said that this verse guarantees the safety of people in general (insān) who came to listen to the Prophet recite from the Qurān until they had returned to the place of refuge whence they came.
The Tanwīr al-miqbās says that the verse commands the Prophet to grant safe conduct to anyone from among the polytheists who asks for it, so that he may hear the recitation of the speech of God. If he does not believe (sc. embrace Islam), then he is to be granted safe passage back to his land (waṭanahu). This is so because they are people ignorant of the commandments of God and His oneness.

Asma Afsaruddin, Striving in the Path of God: Jihad and Martyrdom in Islamic Thought, 2013, pp. 88-89

Similarly, Western Islam-scholar Rudolph F. Peters also asserts that indiscriminate killing is not supported in this verse.[35]

Verse 9:29

At-Tawbah also contains:

Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth among the People of the Scripture, until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.[1]

Al-Rāzī (d. 606/1210), on this occasion quoted an early exegetical authority, Abū Rawq (d. 140/757), who explained that this verse was not a unilateral condemnation of all Jews and Christians, but those "who do not heed the prescriptions contained in the Torah and the Gospel, respectively". Similarly Al-Qurṭubī (d. 671/1273) "did not read into Qurān 9:29 a wholesale denunciation of the People of the Book as an undifferentiated collectivity".[34]:278[36] Modern Muslim scholars like Muhammad Abduh shared similar views, agreeing that this verse was revealed on the occasion of the military campaign in Tabuk, and this verse specifically deals with the People of the Book", and also that "the only kind of legitimate war on which there is unanimity among Muslim scholars is the defensive war when proclaimed by the Imām in the event of an attack upon Muslim territory". The Grand Imam of al-Azhar from 1935 to 1945, Mustafa Al-Maraghi, notes that 9:29 means: "fight those mentioned when the conditions which necessitate fighting are present, namely, aggression against you or your country, oppression and persecution against you on account of your faith, or threatening your safety and security, as was committed against you by the Byzantines, which was what led to Tabuk."[37]

Verse 9:103

In Kitab al-Kafi, Ja'far al-Sadiq has narrated that Imams are not needy to what people own but rather collect religious tax on accord that Allah said, "Take from their wealth (religious tax) and charity by which you purify them and cause them to increase and invoke blessings upon them." Therefore, it is the people who need that the Imam accepts from them.[38]

Sanaa manuscript folio 22, Q9:122-129

Verses 122-129 are preserved in Folio 22 of the Sanaa manuscript. The sequence of Sanaa 1 chapters do not follow any other known quranic order and folio 22 is shared with Chapter 19 (Mary).[39] Saudi-based experts in Quranic history emphasize that while Muhammad was alive, Quranic texts did not follow any standard sequence of surahs.[40]

Folio 22, recto [41] Visible Traces Reconstruction Standard Text
Quran 9 (al-Tawbah), Verse 122
Line 3, p. 62
ما [كـ]ﺎ ﮞمَا كَانَوَمَا كَانَ
Quran 9:122
Line 4
مں كل ا ﻣﻪمِن كُلِّ أُمَّةٍمِن كُلِّ فِرْقَةٍ
Quran 9:124
Line 9
و ا د ا ا ٮر لٮوَإِذَا أُنزِلَتْوَإِذَا مَا أُنزِلَتْ
Quran 9:125
Line 12
ڡی ٯلو ٮهم ر حسفِى قُلُوبِهِم رِجْسٌفِى قُلُوبِهِم مَرَضٌ
Quran 9:125
Line 13
ر حر ا ا لی ر ﺣﺴ[ﻬ]ـﻢرِجزاً إِلَىٰ رِجْسِهِمْرِجساً إِلَىٰ رِجْسِهِمْ
Quran 9:125
Line 13
و ما ٮو ا و هم ڡـ(ـﺴٯـ)[ـﻮ] ﮞوَمَاتُوا۟ وَهُمْ فَـٰسِقُونَوَمَاتُوا۟ وَهُمْ كَـٰفِرُونَ
Quran 9:126
Line 13
ا [و] / / ٮر وأَوَلَا يَرَوْأَوَلَا يَرَوْنَ
Quran 9:126
Line 15
و لا ٮـ(ـٮـ)ـﺪ كر و ﮞوَلَا يَتَذَكَّرُونَوَلَا هُمْ يَذَّكَّرُونَ
Quran 9:127
Line 15
و ا د ا ا [ٮـ]ـﺮ (ﻟ)ـٮوَإِذَا أُنزِلَتْوَإِذَا مَا أُنزِلَتْ
Quran 9:127
Line 16
هل ٮر ٮٮاهَلْ يَرَىٰنَاهَلْ يَرَىٰكُم
Quran 9:127
Line 17
ڡا ٮـ[ـﺼ](ـﺮ) ڡـ(ـﻮ) افَـﭑنصَرَفُواثُمَّ انصَرَفُوا
Quran 9:127
Line 17
ڡصر ڡ ا ﻟـﻠـﻪفَــصَرَفَ اللهُصَرَفَ ٱللَّـهُ
Quran 9:127
Line 17
د لک ٮـ(ﺎ ٮـ)//[ـﻢ] (ٯـ)ـﻮ م لا ٮڡٯهو ﮞذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَّا يَفْقَهُونَبِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَّا يَفْقَهُونَ
Quran 9:128
Line 18
و لٯد حا کموَلَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْلَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ
Quran 9:128
Line 18
ر سو ل ﻣٮـ(ﮑ)ـﻢرَسولٌ مِنْكُمْرَسُولٌ مِنْ أَنْفُسِکُمْ
Quran 9:128
Line 19
عر ٮر (ﻋ)ﻠ[ـٮـ](ﻪ) ما عٮٮکمعَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنَّتَكُمْعَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنِتُّمْ
Quran 9:129
Line 20
ڡا / / (ٮـ)ـﻮ لو ا [ﻋ](ـٮـ)ـﮏفَإن تَوَلَّوْا عَنْكَفَإن تَوَلَّوْا
Quran 9:129
Line 21
ا لد ی لا ا ﻟ[ﻪ] ا لا ﻫﻮالَّذي لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَلَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ


The first and foremost exegesis/tafsir of the Qur'an is found in hadith of Muhammad.[42] Ḥadīth (حديث) is literally "speech" or "report", that is a recorded saying or tradition of Muhammad validated by isnad; with Sirah Rasul Allah these comprise the sunnah and reveal shariah. According to Aishah,[43][44] the life of Muhammad was practical implementation of Qur'an.[45][46][47] Therefore, higher count of hadith elevates the importance of the pertinent surah from a certain perspective. This surah was held in special esteem in hadith, which can be observed by these related narratives.

  • Abu Ishaq said that he heard al-Bara' b. 'Azib (Allah be pleased with him) say: The last complete sura revealed (in the Holy Qur'an) is Sura At-Tawbah (i e. al-Bara'at, ix.), and the last verse revealed is that pertaining to Kalala.[48]
  • Narrated Sa'id ibn Jubayr: I asked Ibn `Abbas about Surat At-Tawbah, and he said, "Surat Al-Tauba? It is exposure (of all the evils of the infidels and the hypocrites). And it continued revealing (that the oft-repeated expression): '...and of them ...and of them.' till they started thinking that none would be left unmentioned therein." I said, "What about) SuratAl-Anfal?" He replied, "Surat Al-Anfal was revealed in connection with the Battle of Badr." I said, "(What about) Surat Al-Hashr?" He replied, "It was revealed in connection with Banu Nadir."[49][50]
  • Narrated Zayd ibn Thabit Al-Ansari: who was one of those who used to write the Divine Revelation: Abu Bakr sent for me after the (heavy) casualties among the warriors (of the battle) of Yamama (where a great number of Qurra' were killed). `Umar was present with Abu Bakr who said, `Umar has come to me and said, The people have suffered heavy casualties on the day of (the battle of) Yamama, and I am afraid that there will be more casualties among the Qurra' (those who know the Qur'an by heart) at other battle-fields, whereby a large part of the Qur'an may be lost, unless you collect it. And I am of the opinion that you should collect the Qur'an." Abu Bakr added, "I said to `Umar, 'How can I do something which Allah's Apostle has not done?' `Umar said (to me), 'By Allah, it is (really) a good thing.' So `Umar kept on pressing, trying to persuade me to accept his proposal, till Allah opened my bosom for it and I had the same opinion as `Umar." (Zaid bin Thabit added:) `Umar was sitting with him (Abu Bakr) and was not speaking. me). "You are a wise young man and we do not suspect you (of telling lies or of forgetfulness): and you used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah's Messenger. Therefore, look for the Qur'an and collect it (in one manuscript). " By Allah, if he (Abu Bakr) had ordered me to shift one of the mountains (from its place) it would not have been harder for me than what he had ordered me concerning the collection of the Qur'an. I said to both of them, "How dare you do a thing which the Prophet has not done?" Abu Bakr said, "By Allah, it is (really) a good thing. So I kept on arguing with him about it till Allah opened my bosom for that which He had opened the bosoms of Abu Bakr and `Umar. So I started locating Qur'anic material and collecting it from parchments, scapula, leaf-stalks of date palms and from the memories of men (who knew it by heart). I found with Khuza`ima two Verses of Surat At-Tawbah which I had not found with anybody else, (and they were):-- "Verily there has come to you an Apostle (Muhammad) from amongst yourselves. It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty He (Muhammad) is ardently anxious over you (to be rightly guided)" (9.128) The manuscript on which the Qur'an was collected, remained with Abu Bakr till Allah took him unto Him, and then with `Umar till Allah took him unto Him, and finally it remained with Hafsa, `Umar's daughter.[51][52][53][54][55]

Placement and coherence with other surahs

The idea of textual relation between the verses of a chapter has been discussed under various titles such as nazm and munasabah in non-English literature and coherence, text relations, intertextuality, and unity in English literature. Hamiduddin Farahi, an Islamic scholar of the Indian subcontinent, is known for his work on the concept of nazm, or coherence, in the Quran. Fakhruddin al-Razi (died 1209 CE), Zarkashi (died 1392) and several other classical as well as contemporary Quranic scholars have contributed to the studies.[56] The entire Qur'an thus emerges as a well-connected and systematic book.[57] Each division has a distinct theme. Topics within a division are more or less in the order of revelation. Within each division, each member of the pair complements the other in various ways. The seven divisions are as follows:

GroupFromToCentral theme
1Al-Fatiha [Quran 1:1]Al-Ma'ida [Quran 5:1]Islamic law
2Al-An'am [Quran 6:1]At-Tawba [Quran 9:1]The consequences of denying Muhammad for the polytheists of Mecca
3Yunus [Quran 10:1]An-Nur [Quran 24:1]Glad tidings of Muhammad's domination
4Al-Furqan [Quran 25:1]Al-Ahzab [Quran 33:1]Arguments on the prophethood of Muhammad and the requirements of faith in him
5Saba [Quran 34:1]Al-Hujraat [Quran 49:1]Arguments on monotheism and the requirements of faith in it
6Qaf [Quran 50:1]At-Tahrim [Quran 66:1]Arguments on afterlife and the requirements of faith in it
7Al-Mulk [Quran 67:1]An-Nas [Quran 114:1]Admonition to the Quraysh about their fate in the Herein and the Hereafter if they deny Muhammad

See also



  1. found in Mustadrak al Sahihayn.[10] The complete narration from Al-Hakim al-Nishapuri were:... Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Yaqoub has reported from Ibrahim bin Abdullah Al-Saadi, who told us Muhammad bin Khalid bin Uthma, told us Musa bin Yaqoub, told me Abu Al-Huwairith, that Muhammad bin Jubayr bin Mut’im told him, that he heard Ali - may God be pleased with him - addresses the people, and he said: While I was leaving from the well of Badr, a strong wind came, the like of which I had never seen, then it left, then came a strong wind, the like of which I have never seen except for the one before it, then it went, then came a strong wind that I did not see before. I have never seen anything like it except for the one before it, and the first wind was Gabriel descended among a thousand angels with the Messenger of God - may God bless him and grant him peace - and the second wind was Michael who descended among a thousand angels to the right of the Messenger of God - may God bless him and his family and grant them peace - and Abu Bakr was On his right, and the third wind was Israfil. He descended with a thousand angels on the side of the Messenger of God - may God’s prayers and peace be upon him and his family - and I was on the right side. When God Almighty defeated his enemies, the Messenger of God - may God’s prayers and peace be upon him and his family - carried me on his horse, I blew up, and I fell On my heels, I prayed to God Almighty... Ibn al Mulqin, Hadith scholar from Cordoba of 13-14 AD century, evaluate this hadith tha he found weaknesses in Musa ibn Yaqoub and Abu al Huwairith chain, so he deemed there is weakness about this hadith.[11] However, recent scholarship from Ali Hasan al-Halabi has noted there is another hadith which supported the participation of Raphael in Badr[9]
  2. According to Islamic belief in weak chain of Hadith, Raphael were acknowledged as angel who were tasked to blower of Armageddon trumpet, and one of archangels who bear the Throne of God on their back.[12]
  3. According to one Hadith, Muhammad were told that the angels that appeared in the battle of Badr were highest in status and the "best of angels" according to Gabriel.[13]
  4. According to one narration, during the battle, Muhammad has found an angel whom he though as Zubayr standing next to him, which then prompted Muhammad to command him to attack, which the angel, in Zubayr appearance, simply replied, "I am not Zubayr." Thus, according to Hadith expert this another indication that the angels truly came down with the appearance of Zubayr during Badr.[17]
  5. Biography of the Prophet An Analytical Study Based on Authentic Sources by Mahdi Rizqullah which published in Indonesian language were praised by Jonathan E. Brockopp from Cambridge University Press for providing more details of Prophetic biography narration which does not offered by Mohammed Hussein Heikal biography works.[21]


  1. Ibn Kathir. "Tafsir Ibn Kathir (English): Surah Al Tawbah". Quran 4 U. Tafsir. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  2. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2015). The Study Qur'an. New York: HarperCollins. p. 503. ISBN 978-0-06-112586-7.
  3. The 1698 Maracci Quran notes some chapters have two or more titles, occasioned by the existence of different copies in the Arabic.(George Sale Preliminary discourse 3)
  4. "Birmingham Qur'an manuscript dated among the oldest in the world". University of Birmingham. 22 July 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  5. "'Oldest' Koran fragments found in Birmingham University". BBC. 22 July 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  6. Ünal, Ali. (2008). The Qurʼan with annotated interpretation in modern English. Somerset, N.J.: Tughra Books. p. 385. ISBN 978-1-59784-144-3. OCLC 234244740.
  7. Omar Al-Muqbil; professor Shalih bin Abdullah bin Humaid from Riyadh Tafsir center; Imad Zuhair Hafidz from Markaz Ta'dhim Qur'an Medina. "Surat at-Tawbah Ayat 40". Tafsirweb (in Indonesian and Arabic). Islamic University of Madinah; Ministry of Religious Affairs (Indonesia); Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Dawah and Guidance. Retrieved 30 January 2022.
  8. al-Misri, Mahmud (2015). Sahabat-Sahabat Rasulullah vol 1: Zubair bin Awwam [Companion of the Prophet vol 1: Zubair bin Awwam] (in Indonesian and Arabic). Pustaka Ibnu Katsir. p. Shaja'ah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam Radhiyallahu anh (bravery of Zubayr ibn al-Awwam; by Mahmud al-Misri; official Book review by Basalamah; quoting various supplementary sources such as Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Siyar A'lam Nubala, Al-Tirmidhi, Prophetic biography of Ibn Hisham, etc. ISBN 9789791294386. Retrieved 6 November 2021.
  9. Hakim, Saifuddin (2015). "Apakah Malaikat Israfil Bertugas Meniup Sangkakala pada Hari Kiamat? (1)". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 December 2021. [ يا آدم بر حجك ] " ما يروى عن آدم -عليه السلام- أنه لما حج قالت له الملائكة: «يا آدم بر حجك»: غير ثابت. " [من فوائد جلسة مع طلبة العلم /16/ذو الحجة/1432 ] __________________ " ... فهل يحسن بنا وقد أنضينا قرائحنا في تعلم هذه السنة المطهرة، وبذلنا في العمل بها جهد المستطيع، وركبنا المخاطر في الدعوة إليها؛ هل يحسن بنا بعد هذا كله أن نسكت لهؤلاء عن هذه الدعوى الباطلة، ونوليهم منا ما تولوا ونبلعهم ريقهم، وهل يحسن بنا أن لا يكون لنا في الدفاع عنها ما كان منا في الدعوة إليها؟ إنا إذن لمقصرون!..."
  10. al-Nishapuri, al-Hakim. "Kitabu Ma'rifat Shahabatu Radhiyallahu Anhum: Gabriel, Michael and Israfil descend in the Battle of Badr.". al Mustadrak ala Sahihayn. Islamweb: Islamweb. Retrieved 13 December 2021. 4488 - Narrated Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ya'kub, through Ibrahim bin Abdullah Al Saadi , on the authority of Muhammad bin Khalid bin Athmah, on the authority of Musa bin Yaqub , who reported Abu Huwayrith , that Muhammad bin Jabir bin Mut'im, told him
  11. Abu Hafs Umar bin Ali bin Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Abdullah Al-Anshari Al-Wadi Asyi Al-Andalusi At-Tukuruwi Al-Mishri Asy-Syafi`i, Sirajuddin. "كتاب مختصر تلخيص الذهبي" [kitab mukhtasar talkhis aldhahabii]. Islamweb. Islamweb. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  12. Hakim, Saifuddin (2015). "Apakah Malaikat Israfil Bertugas Meniup Sangkakala pada Hari Kiamat? (2)" [Does angel Raphael tasked to blow the trumpet of Armageddon in the day of judgment? (2)]. (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 December 2021. Tafsir Al-Qurthubi, 7/20 (Maktabah Syamilah); At-Tadzkirah bi Ahwaalil Mauta wa Umuuril Akhirah, 1/488 (Maktabah Syamilah).; Fathul Baari 11/368 (Maktabah Syamilah); see Al-Imaan bimaa Ba’dal Maut, p. 112. ; Syarh Al-Ibanah: Al-Imaan bin Nafkhi Ash-Shuur, 5/33.; Syarh Al-‘Aqidah Al-Washithiyyah, 1/59-60 (Maktabah Asy-Syamilah). while in another book: وذلك أن الله سبحانه وتعالى يأمر اسرافيل وهو أحد الملائكة الموكلين بحمل العرش أن ينفخ في الصور (Syarh Al-‘Aqidah As-Safariyaniyyah, 1/467).
  13. Qadhi, Yasir (2016). "Lives Of The Sahaba 39 – Az-Zubayr Ibn Al-Awwam – PT 01". Muslim Central Audio. Muslim Central Audio. Retrieved 4 December 2021.
  14. Bin Al-Hassan & Al-Dimashqi (2012, p. 622, Al-Zubayr told us, he said: And Abu Al-Makarram Uqbah bin Makram Al-Dhabi told me, Musab bin Salam Al-Tamimi told me, on the authority of Saad bin Tarif, on the authority of Abu Jaafar Muhammad bin Ali, he said: On the day of Badr, Al-Zubayr bin Al-Awwam had a yellow turban)
  15. Rizqullah 2005, p. 410.
  16. Abasoomar & Abasoomar 2016.
  17. Ahmad Ath-Thahir, Hamid (2017). Kisah Teladan 20 Shahabat Nabi untuk Anak (Doctor) (in Indonesian). Hikam Pustaka. p. 103. ISBN 9786236843703. Retrieved 29 December 2021.
  18. Nasrulloh, Muhammad (2020). "46: Doa Rasulullah SAW ketika perang Badar". PERISTIWA DIBALIK TURUNNYA AL-QURAN: Fakta Sejarah Pengantar Turunnya Ayat-Ayat Al-Quran [EVENTS BEHIND THE DECENT OF THE QURAN: Historical Facts Introduction] (ebook) (Religion / Islam / History) (in Indonesian and Arabic). Aghitsna Publiser. pp. 92–93. ISBN 9786236865101. Retrieved 2 February 2022. Hadith from Sahih Muslim no.1763; Sahih al-Bukhari no.2915; Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal no.1161; al-Tabarani vol 10 p.18110270; compiled in the book of Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani vol.7 p.289
  19. Omar Al-Muqbil; professor Shalih bin Abdullah bin Humaid from Riyadh Tafsir center; Imad Zuhair Hafidz from Markaz Ta'dhim Qur'an Medina (2016). "Surat Ali-Imran ayat 125". Tafsirweb (in Indonesian and Arabic). Islamic University of Madinah; Ministry of Religious Affairs (Indonesia); Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Dawah and Guidance. Retrieved 30 January 2022.
  20. Mahdi Rizqullah Ahmad; Anis Maftukhin; Yessi HM. Basyaruddin (2017). Maftukhin, Anis (ed.). Biografi Rasulullah Sebuah Studi Analitis Berdasarkan Sumber-sumber yang Otentik [Biography of the Prophet An Analytical Study Based on Authentic Sources] (ebook) (Biography & Autobiography / Religious, Religion / Islam / General, Muhammad, Prophet, d. 632 -- Biography) (in Indonesian). Qisthi Press. pp. 441–443. ISBN 9789793715568. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  21. Jonathan E. Brockopp (2010). The Cambridge Companion to Muhammad (ebook) (History / Middle East / General, Religion / Islam / General, Social Science / Islamic Studies). Cambridge University Press. p. 257. ISBN 9781139828383. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  22. Wherry, Elwood Morris (1896). A Complete Index to Sale's Text, Preliminary Discourse, and Notes. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, and Co. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  23. Muḥammad ibn Ismāʻīl Bukhārī, Sahih al-Bukhari, Peace Vision, 1971 p.1727.
  24. F. E. Peters, A Reader on Classical Islam, Princeton University Press 1993 p.180.
  25. Ahmad Ali Al-Imam, Variant Readings of the Qurʼan: A Critical Study of Their Historical and Linguistic Origins, International Institute of Islamic Thought, 2006 pp.28-29.
  26. "9. Surah At Taubah (The Repentance) - Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi - Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an". Retrieved 2021-02-20.
  27. Despite the fact that the reporters have given various explanations behind this, the right one that which has been given by Imam Razi:
  28. Saheeh International. (2012). The Qur'ān : English meanings and notes. Al-Muntada Al-Islami Trust. pp. Surah 9: at–Tawbah. ISBN 978-9960-792-63-7. OCLC 840114255.
  29. (vv. 1-37)
  30. (vv., 38-72)
  31. (vv. 73-129)
  32. The Qur'an. Center for Muslim–Jewish Engagement, University of Southern California. 2008. Archived from the original on 18 June 2017.
  33. Shourie, Arun. Indian Controversies, Essays in Religion and Politics, ASA Publications, New Delhi-110021
  34. Afsaruddin, Asma (2013-06-27). Striving in the Path of God: Jihad and Martyrdom in Islamic Thought. OUP USA. ISBN 978-0-19-973093-3.
  35. Peters, Rudolph (2005). Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam.
  36. Tafsir al-Kabir, al-Razi, التفسير الكبير.
  37. Mustafa, al-Maraghi. Tafsir al-Maraghi. 10. p. 95. محمد مصطفى المراغي.
  38. Al-Kulayni, Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Ya’qub (2015). Kitab al-Kafi. South Huntington, NY: The Islamic Seminary Inc. ISBN 9780991430864.
  39. Sadeghi & Goudarzi 2012.
  40. "Experts doubt oldest Quran claim". Saudi Gazette. 27 July 2015. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  41. Sadeghi & Goudarzi 2012, p. 62. The hypothetical interpolation of texts for the missing parts in this and the next row are based on Sadeghi & Goudarzi's fn. 216 and 218.
  42. Şatibi, El-muvafakat
  43. Grade : Sahih (Al-Albani) صحيح (الألباني) حكم  : Reference  : Sunan Abi Dawud 1342 In-book reference  : Book 5, Hadith 93 English translation  : Book 5, Hadith 1337
  44. Al-Adab al-Mufrad » Dealings with people and good character - كتاب English reference  : Book 14, Hadith 308 Arabic reference  : Book 1, Hadith 308
  45. Sahih Al- Jami' AI-Saghir, No.4811
  46. Sunan Ibn Majah 2333 In-book reference  : Book 13, Hadith 26 English translation  : Vol. 3, Book 13, Hadith 2333
  47. Grade : Sahih (Darussalam) Reference  : Sunan an-Nasa'i 1601 In-book reference  : Book 20, Hadith 4 English translation  : Vol. 2, Book 20, Hadith 1602
  48. Sahih Muslim The Book of the Rules of Inheritance. (3)Chapter: The Last Verse To Be Revealed Was The Verse Of Kalalah 1618 c In-book reference  : Book 23, Hadith 15 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Book 11, Hadith 3941 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  49. Sahih al-Bukhari » Prophetic Commentary on the Qur'an (Tafseer of the Prophet (pbuh)) USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Vol. 6, Book 60, Hadith 404 Arabic reference  : Book 65, Hadith 4882
  50. Sahih Muslim » The Book of Commentary on the Qur'an 3031 In-book reference  : Book 56, Hadith 35 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Book 43, Hadith 7185 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  51. Sahih al-Bukhari » Prophetic Commentary on the Qur'an (Tafseer of the Prophet (pbuh)) USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Vol. 6, Book 60, Hadith 201 Arabic reference  : Book 65, Hadith 4679
  52. Sahih al-Bukhari » Book of Judgments (Ahkaam) (37)Chapter: It is desirable that a scribe should be honest and wise 7191 In-book reference  : Book 93, Hadith 53 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Vol. 9, Book 89, Hadith 301 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  53. Sahih al-Bukhari » Book of Virtues of the Qur'an (3)Chapter: The collection of the Qur'an 4986 In-book reference  : Book 66, Hadith 8 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Vol. 6, Book 61, Hadith 509 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  54. Sahih al-Bukhari 7425 In-book reference  : Book 97, Hadith 53 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Vol. 9, Book 93, Hadith 521 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  55. Sahih al-Bukhari 4989 In-book reference  : Book 66, Hadith 11 USC-MSA web (English) reference  : Vol. 6, Book 61, Hadith 511 (deprecated numbering scheme)
  56. Hamiduddin Farahi, translated by Tariq Mahmood Hashmi (2008). Exordium to coherence in the Quran : an English translation of Fātiḥah Niẓām al-Qurʼān (1st ed.). Lahore: al-Mawrid. ISBN 978-9698799571.
  57. Esposito, John, ed. (2003), "Islahi, Amin Ahsan", The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-512558-4


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