Prophets and messengers in Islam

Prophets in Islam (Arabic: الأنبياء في الإسلام, romanized: al-ʾAnbiyāʾ fī al-ʾIslām) are individuals in Islam who are believed to spread God's message on Earth and to serve as models of ideal human behaviour. Some prophets are categorized as messengers (Arabic: رسل, romanized: rusul, sing. رسول, rasūl), those who transmit divine revelation, most of them through the interaction of an angel. Muslims believe that many prophets existed, including many not mentioned in the Quran. The Quran states: "There is a Messenger for every community".[1][2] Belief in the Islamic prophets is one of the six articles of the Islamic faith.[3]

Muslims believe that the first prophet was also the first human being, Adam, created by God. Many of the revelations delivered by the 48 prophets in Judaism and many prophets of Christianity are mentioned as such in the Quran but usually with Arabic versions of their names; for example, the Jewish Elisha is called Alyasa', Job is Ayyub, Jesus is 'Isa, etc. The Torah given to Moses (Musa) is called Tawrat, the Psalms given to David (Dawud) is the Zabur, the Gospel given to Jesus is Injil.[4]

The last prophet in Islam is Muhammad ibn ʿAbdullāh, whom Muslims believe to be the "Seal of the Prophets" (Khatam an-Nabiyyin), to whom the Quran was revealed in a series of revelations (and written down by his companions).[5] Muslims believe the Quran is the sole divine and literal word of God, thus immutable and protected from distortion and corruption,[6] destined to remain in its true form until the Last Day.[7]

In Islam, every prophet preached the same core beliefs, the Oneness of God, worshipping of that one God, avoidance of idolatry and sin, and the belief in the Day of Resurrection or the Day of Judgement and life after death. Prophets and messengers are believed to have been sent by God to different communities during different times in history.


In Arabic and Hebrew,[8] the term nabī (Arabic plural form: أنبياء, anbiyāʼ) means "prophet". Forms of this noun occur 75 times in the Quran. The term nubuwwah (Arabic: نبوة "prophethood") occurs five times in the Quran. The terms rasūl (Arabic plural: رسل, rusul) and mursal (Arabic: مرسل, mursal, pl: مرسلون, mursalūn) denote "messenger with law given by/received from God" and occur more than 300 times. The term for a prophetic "message" (Arabic: رسالة, risālah, pl: رسالات, risālāt) appears in the Quran in ten instances.[9]

The Syriac form of rasūl Allāh (literally: "messenger of God"), s̲h̲eliḥeh d-allāhā, occurs frequently in the apocryphal Acts of St. Thomas. The corresponding verb for s̲h̲eliḥehs̲h̲alaḥ, occurs in connection with the prophets in the Hebrew Bible.[10][11][12][13]

The words "prophet" (Arabic: نبي, romanized: nabī) and "messenger" (Arabic: رسول, romanized: rasūl) appear several times in the Old Testament and the New Testament.

The following table shows these words in different languages:[14]

Prophet and Messenger in the Bible
ArabicArabic PronunciationEnglishGreekGreek pronunciationStrong NumberHebrewHebrew pronunciationStrong Number
نَبِيّ NabīyProphetπροφήτηςprophētēsG4396נְבִיָּאnavi' /nabiʔ/H5030
رَسُول or مُرْسَل Rasūl, MursalMessenger, Prophet, Apostleἄγγελος,
שָׁלַח (verb)
mal'ach /malʔak/,
shalah /ʃalaħ/ (verb)

In the Hebrew Bible, the word nabi ("spokesperson, prophet") occurs commonly. The biblical word for "messenger", mal'akh, refers today to Angels in Judaism, but originally was used for human messenger both of God and of men, thus it is only somewhat equivalent of rasūl. According to Judaism, Haggai, Zaqariah, and Malachi were the last prophets, all of whom lived at the end of the 70-year Babylonian exile. With them, the authentic period of Nevuah ("prophecy") died,[15] and nowadays only the "Bath Kol" (בת קול, lit. daughter of a voice, "voice of God") exists (Sanhedrin 11a).

In the New Testament, however, the word "messenger" becomes more frequent, sometimes in association with the concept of a preacher (apostle or prophet).[16] "Messenger" may refer to Jesus, to his Apostles and to John the Baptist. But the last book of the Old Testament, the Book of Malachi, speaks of a messenger that Christian commentators interpret as a reference to the future prophet John the Baptist (Yahya).[17]


In Islam, the Quran is believed to be a revelation from the last prophet in the Abrahamic succession, Muhammad, and its contents detail what Muslims refer to as the straight path.[18] According to Islamic belief, every prophet preached submission and obedience to God (Islam). There is an emphasis on charity, prayer, pilgrimage, fasting, with the most emphasis given to the strict belief and worship of a singular God.[19] The Quran itself calls Islam the "religion of Abraham" (Ibrahim)[20] and refers to Jacob (Yaqub) and the Twelve Tribes of Israel as being Muslims.[21]

The Quran says:

In matters of faith, He has laid down for you [people] the same commandment that He gave Noah, which We have revealed to you [Muhammad] and which We enjoined on Abraham and Moses and Jesus: 'Uphold the faith and do not divide into factions within it'-...

Prophets in Islam are exemplars to ordinary humans. They exhibit model characteristics of righteousness and moral conduct. Prophetic typologies shared by all prophets include prophetic lineage, advocating monotheism, transmitting God's messages, and warning of the eschatological consequences of rejecting God. Prophetic revelation often comes in the form of signs and divine proofs. Each prophet is connected to one another, and ultimately support the final prophetic message of Muhammad. The qualities prophets possess are meant to lead people towards the straight path. In one hadith, it was stated: "Among men the prophets suffer most."[23]

Protection from sin and failure

Classical Islamic teaching, especially Shia Islam,[24] teach that unlike other human beings, prophets have the quality of ʿiṣmah, i.e. are protected by God from making mistakes or committing grave sins.[25] This does not mean, they do not err, rather that they always seek to correct their mistakes. It is argued that sins are necessary for prophets, so they can show the people how to repent.[26]

Some doubt whether there is Quranic basis for ʿiṣmah,[25] but the notion became "mainstream Sunni doctrine" by the ninth century CE.[27][28]

The Quran speaks of the prophets as being the greatest human beings of all time.[19] Quran 4:69 lists various virtuous groups of human beings, among whom prophets (including messengers) occupy the highest rank. Verse 4:69 reads:[9]

All who obey God and the messenger are in the company of those on whom is the Grace of God—of the prophets (who teach), the sincere (lovers of Truth), the witnesses (who testify), and the Righteous (who do good): Ah! what a beautiful fellowship!

Stories of the prophets in the Quran demonstrate that it is "God's practice" (Sunnat Allah) to make faith triumph finally over the forces of evil and adversity. "We have made the evil ones friends to those without faith."[30] "Assuredly God will defend those who believe."[31][32] The prophets are divinely inspired by God but "share no divine attributes", and possess "no knowledge or power" other than that granted to them by God.[33] Prophets are considered to be chosen by God for the specific task of teaching the faith of Islam.[19]


Some were called to prophesy late in life, such as Muhammad at the age of 40.[34] Some were called to prophesy at a young age, such as John the Baptist.[35] Jesus prophesied while still in his cradle.[36]

Female prophets

The question of Mary's prophethood has been debated amongst Muslim theologians. The Zahirite ("literalist") school argued that Mary as well as Sara the mother of Isaac, and Asiya, the mother of Moses are not considered as prophets. The Zahirites-based this determination on the instances in the Quran where angels spoke to the women and divinely guided their actions.[37] According to the Zahirite Ibn Hazm of Cordova (d. 1064) women could be placed under the categorization of nubuwwa ("prophethood") but not under risala ("messengerhood") which could only be attained by men.[37] Ibn Hazm also based his position on Mary's prophethood on Qurān 5:75 which refers to Mary as "a woman of truth" just as it refers to Joseph as a "man of truth" in Q12:46. Other linguistic examples which augment scholarship around Mary's position in Islam can be found in terms used to describe her. For example, In Q4:34 Mary is described as being one of the "qanitin", or one who exhibits "qunut" ("devout obedience"). This is the same term used for male prophets in the masculine gender plural of Arabic. The feminine plural, which is not used, would be "qanitat".[38]

Challenges to Mary's prophethood have often been based on Q12:109 which reads "We have only sent men prior to you". Some scholars have argued that the use of the term "rijal" or men should be interpreted as providing a contrast between men and angels and not necessarily as contrasting men and women.[38]

Some scholars, particularly in the Sunni tradition, have rejected this doctrine as bid'a ("heretical innovation").[37]

Prophetic lineage

Abraham is widely recognized for being the father of monotheism in the Abrahamic religions, however, in the Quran he is recognized as a messenger and a link in the chain of Muslim prophets. Muhammad, God's final messenger and the revelator of the Quran, is a descendant of Abraham. In the Quran it reads, "He [God] said: 'I am making you [Abraham] a spiritual exemplar to mankind.'" (Q. 2:124) This phrase is affirming Islam as an Abrahamic religion, and further promoting Abraham as an important figure in the history of the Quran. This confirmation of the prophetic relationship (between Abraham and Muhammad) is significant to Abraham's story in the Quran – due to the fact that the last messenger, Muhammad, completes Abraham's prophetic lineage. This relationship can be seen in the Quranic chapter 6:

"That is Our Argument which We imparted to Abraham against his people. We raise up in degrees whomever We please. Your Lord is indeed Wise, All-Knowing. And We granted him Isaac and Jacob, and guided each of them; and Noah We guided before that, and of his progeny, [We guided] David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses and Aaron. Thus We reward the beneficent. And Zechariah, John, Jesus and Elias, each was one of the righteous. And Ishmael, Elijah, Jonah and Lot; each We exalted above the whole world. [We also exalted some] of their fathers, progeny and brethren. And We chose them and guided them to a straight path." (Q. 6:83-87)

These particular verses support the Quranic narrative for Abraham to be recognized as a patriarch and is supported by his prophetic lineage concluding with Muhammad. Although Muhammad is considered the last prophet, some Muslim traditions also recognize and venerate saints (though modern schools, such as Salafism and Wahhabism, reject the theory of sainthood).[39]

The Quran presents the world of Abraham as interlocking dramas or conflicts. The divine drama concerns the events of creation and banishment from the garden; while the human drama concerns the life and history of humanity but, also inclusive of the ever-changing events in of individual lives and those of the prophets.[18] This is the situation that calls the faith of the Prophets to follow and reclaim the message of the Straight path and this is characterization of the conflicts between the two dramas. The Islamic morality is founded on this virtuous living through faith in the life ordained by the divine. This is the divine task given to believers accompanied by the divine gift that the Prophets had in revelation and perspective of ayat.[18] This the key feature to the authority of their revelation because not only is the source of revelation is God but it produces texts that are seen as distinctive than other poetry but it fits within the Abrahamic tradition. Poetry especially, in the Arabian context, connects the Quran to Pre-Islamic poetry which originates from the jihn; however, the Quran's place within other religious contexts gives the revelation to Muhammed the same authority of the Hebrew texts and the New Testament.[40]


The Quran states,

"And (remember) Abraham, when he said to his people: 'Worship Allah and fear Him; that is far better for you, if only you knew. Indeed, you only worship, apart from Allah, mere idols, and you invent falsehood. Surely, those you worship, apart from Allah, have no power to provide for you. So, seek provision from Allah, worship Him and give Him thanks. You shall be returned unto Him.'" (Q. 29:16-17)

This passage promotes Abraham's devotion to God as one of his messengers along with his monotheism. Islam is a monotheistic religion, and Abraham is one who is recognized for this transformation of the religious tradition. This prophetic aspect of monotheism is mentioned several times in the Quran. Abraham believed in one true God (Allah) and promoted an "invisible oneness" (tawḥīd) with him. The Quran proclaims, "Say: 'My lord has guided me to a Straight Path, a right religion, the creed of Abraham, an upright man who was no polytheist.'" (Q. 6:161) One push Abraham had to devote himself to God and monotheism is from the pagans of his time. Abraham was devoted to cleansing the Arabian Peninsula of this impetuous worship.[41] His father was a wood idol sculptor, and Abraham was critical of his trade. Due to Abraham's devotion, he is recognized as the father of monotheism.


Prophets and messengers in Islam often fall under the typologies of nadhir ("warner") and bashir ("announcer of good tidings"). Many prophets serve as vessels to inform humanity of the eschatological consequences of not accepting God's message and affirming monotheism.[42] A verse from the Quran reads: "Verily, We have sent thee [Muhammad] with the truth, as a bearer of glad tidings and a warner: and thou shalt not be held accountable for those who are destined for the blazing fire." (Q2:119) The prophetic revelations found in the Quran offer vivid descriptions of the flames of Hell that await nonbelievers but also describe the rewards of the gardens of Paradise that await the true believers.[42] The warnings and promises transmitted by God through the prophets to their communities serve to legitimize Muhammed's message. The final revelation that is presented to Muhammed is particularly grounded in the belief that the Day of Judgement is imminent.

Signs and divine proofs

Throughout the Quran, prophets such as Moses and Jesus often perform miracles or are associated with miraculous events. The Quran makes clear that these events always occur through God and not of the prophet's own volition. Throughout the Meccan passages there are instances where the Meccan people demand visual proofs of Muhammad's divine connection to God to which Muhammad replies "The signs are only with Allah, and I am only a plain warner." (Q29:50) This instance makes clear that prophets are only mortals who can testify to God's omnipotence and produce signs when he wills it.[42] Furthermore, the Quran states that visual and verbal proofs are often rejected by the unbelievers as being sihr ("magic") The Quran reads: "They claim that he tries to bewitch them and make them believe that he speaks the word of God, although he is just an ordinary human being like themselves. (Q74:24-25)

Representation and prophetic connection to Muhammad

There are patterns of representation of Quranic prophecy that support the revelation of Muhammad. Since Muhammad is in Abraham's prophetic lineage, they are analogous in many aspects of their prophecy. Muhammad was trying to rid the Pagans of idolatry during his lifetime, which is similar to Abraham. This caused many to reject Muhammad’s message and even made him flee from Mecca due to his unsafety in the city. Carl Ernest, the author of How to Read the Qur’an: A New Guide, with Select Translations, states, "The Qur’an frequently consoles Muhammad and defends him against his opponents."[43] This consolation can also be seen as parallel to Abraham's encouragement from God. Muhammad is also known to perform miracles as Abraham did. Sura 17 (al-isrā) briefly describes Muhammad's miraculous Night Journey where he physically ascended to the Heavens to meet with previous prophets. This spiritual journey is significant in the sense that many Islamic religious traditions and transformations were given and established during this miracle, such as the ritual of daily prayer. (Q17:78-84) Muhammad is a descendant of Abraham; therefore, this not only makes him part of the prophetic lineage, but the final prophet in the Abrahamic lineage to guide humanity to the Straight Path. In Sura 33 (al-ahzāb) it confirms Muhammad and states, "Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but is the Messenger of Allah and the seal of the Prophets. Allah is Cognizant of everything". (Q33:40)


The Quran emphasizes the importance of obedience to prophets in Surah 26 Ash-Shu'ara, in which a series of prophets preaching fear of God and obedience to themselves.

  • verse 108 has Noah saying 'fear God and Obey me'
  • verse 126 has Hud saying 'fear God and obey me'
  • verse 144 has Saleh saying 'fear God and obey me'
  • verse 163 has Lot saying 'fear God and obey me'
  • verse 179 has Shu'ayb saying 'fear God and obey me'[44][45]

Scriptures and other gifts

Holy books of Islam

The revealed books are the records which Muslims believe were dictated by God to various Islamic prophets throughout the history of mankind, all these books promulgated the code and laws of Islam. The belief in all the revealed books is an article of faith in Islam and Muslims must believe in all the scriptures to be a Muslim. Muslims believe the Quran, the final holy scripture, was sent because all the previous holy books had been either corrupted or lost.[46] Nonetheless, Islam speaks of respecting all the previous scriptures, even in their current forms.[47]

The Quran mentions some Islamic scriptures by name:

  • Tawrat (Torah): According to the Quran, the Tawrat (Torah) was revealed to Moses,[48] but Muslims believe that the current Pentateuch, although it retains the main message,[49] has suffered corruption over the years. Moses and his brother Haroon (Aaron) used the Torah to preach the message to the Children of Israel. The Quran implies that the Torah is the longest-used scripture, with the Jewish people still using the Torah today, and that all the Hebrew prophets would warn the people of any corruptions that were in the scripture.[50] Jesus, in Muslim belief, was the last prophet to be taught the Mosaic Law in its true form.
  • Zabur (Psalms): The Quran mentions the Psalms as being the holy scripture revealed to David. Scholars have often understood the Psalms to have been holy songs of praise.[51] The current Psalms are still praised by many Muslim scholars,[52] but Muslims generally assume that some of the current Psalms were written later and are not divinely revealed.
  • Books of Divine Wisdom (Arabic: possibly identified as الْزُبُر az-Zubur): The Quran mentions certain Books of Divine Wisdom,[53] translated by some scholars as Books of Dark Prophecies, which are a reference to particular books vouchsafed to some prophets, wherein there was wisdom for man. Some scholars have suggested that these may be one and the same as the Psalms as their root Arabic word, Zubur (Quran 35:25) - the plural for the word "Scriptures", comes from the same source as the Arabic Zabur for the Psalms.
  • Injil (Gospel): The Injil (Gospel) was the holy book revealed to Jesus, according to the Quran. Although many lay Muslims believe the Injil refers to the entire New Testament, scholars have clearly pointed out that it refers not to the New Testament but to an original Gospel, which was sent by God, and was given to Jesus.[54] Therefore, according to Muslim belief, the Gospel was the message that Jesus, being divinely inspired, preached to the Children of Israel. The current canonical Gospels, in the belief of Muslim scholars, are not divinely revealed but rather are documents of the life of Jesus, as written by various contemporaries, disciples and companions. These Gospels contain portions of Jesus's teachings but do not represent the original Gospel, which was a single book written not by a human but was sent by God.[55]
  • Quran: The Quran (Arabic: القرآن‎, romanized: al-Qurʼān) was the revelation revealed to Muhammad.
  • Scrolls of Abraham: (Arabic: الْصُّحُفُ ٱلْأُولَى, romanized: aṣ-Ṣuḥufu 'l-Ūlā, lit.'Books of the Earliest Revelation' and/or Arabic: صُّحُفِ إِبْرَهِيم, romanized: Ṣuḥufu 'Ibrahīm). The Scrolls of Abraham are believed to have been one of the earliest bodies of scripture, which were vouchsafed to Abraham,[56] and later used by Ishmael and Isaac. Although usually referred to as 'scrolls/ manuscript', many translators have translated the Arabic Suhuf as 'the Scriptures'.[57] The Scrolls of Abraham are now considered lost rather than corrupted, although some scholars have identified them with the Testament of Abraham, an apocalyptic piece of literature available in Arabic at the time of Muhammad. The verse mentioning the "Scriptures" is in Quran 87:18-19 where they are referred to "Books of the Earliest Revelation".
  • Scrolls of Moses: (Arabic: الْصُّحُفُ ٱلْأُولَى, romanized: aṣ-Ṣuḥufu 'l-Ūlā, lit.'Books of the Earliest Revelation' and/or Arabic: صُّحُفُ مُوسَى, romanized: Ṣuḥufu Mūsā). These scrolls, containing the revelations of Moses, which were perhaps written down later by Moses, Aaron and Joshua, are understood by Muslims to refer not to the Torah but to revelations aside from the Torah. Some scholars have stated that they could possibly refer to the Book of the Wars of the Lord,[58] a lost text spoken of in the Hebrew Bible.[59] The verse mentioning the "Scriptures" is in Quran 87:18-19 where they are referred to "Books of the Earliest Revelation".
  • Book of Enlightenment (Arabic: الكِتَابُ ٱلْمُنِير, romanized: Kitābul-Munīr): The Quran mentions a Book of Enlightenment,[60] which has alternatively been translated as Scripture of Enlightenment or the Illuminating Book. It mentions that some prophets, in the past, came with clear signs from God as well as this particular scripture.

Holy gifts

Muhammad was given a divine gift of revelation through the angel Gabriel. This direct communication with the divine underlines the human experience but the message of the Quran dignifies this history of revelation with these select people in human history the foundation for Muhammed's prophetic lineage.

The Quran mentions various divinely-bestowed gifts given to various prophets. These may be interpreted as books or forms of celestial knowledge. Although all prophets are believed by Muslims to have been immensely gifted, special mention of "wisdom" or "knowledge" for a particular prophet is understood to mean that some secret knowledge was revealed to him. The Quran mentions that Abraham prayed for wisdom and later received it.[61] It also mentions that Joseph[62] and Moses[63] both attained wisdom when they reached full age; David received wisdom with kingship, after slaying Goliath;[64] Lot (Lut) received wisdom whilst prophesying in Sodom and Gomorrah;[65] John the Baptist received wisdom while still a mere youth;[66] and Jesus received wisdom and was vouchsafed the Gospel.[67]

The nature of revelation

During the time of Muhammad's revelation, the Arabian peninsula was made up of many pagan tribes. His birthplace, Mecca, was a central pilgrimage site and a trading center where many tribes and religions were in constant contact. Muhammad's connection with the surrounding culture was foundational to the way the Quran was revealed. Though it is seen as the direct word of God, it came through to Muhammad in his own native language of Arabic, which could be understood by all the peoples in the peninsula. This is the key feature of the Quran which makes it unique to the poetry and other religious texts of the time. It is considered immune to translation and culturally applicable to the context of the time it was revealed.[68] Muhammad was criticized for his revelation being poetry which, according to the cultural perspective, is revelation purely originating from the jihn and the Qurash but the typology of duality and its likeness to the other prophets in the Abrahamic line affirms his revelation. This likeness is found in the complexity of its structure and its message of submission of faith to the one God, Allah.[40] This also revels that his revelation comes from God alone and he is the preserver of the Straight Path as well as the inspired messages and lives of other prophets, making the Quran cohesive with the monotheistic reality in the Abrahamic traditions.[40]

Known prophets

Prophets and messengers named in the Quran

All messengers mentioned in the Quran are also prophets, but not all prophets are messengers.[69]

Prophets and messengers in the Quran
No. Name Arabic (transl.) EquivalentProphet (nabī) Messenger (rasūl) Archprophet (ʾulu al-ʿazm)Law (Sharia)Book Lived duringSent to Notes
1 Adam آدَم
Adam [70] [70] Birth of humanity Earth[71] First Prophet and father of all the human beings
2 Idris إِدْرِيس
Enoch [72] Babylon Inventor of the pen; inventor of the needle
3 Nuh نُوح
Noah [73] [74] [75][76] [77] Great Flood The people of Noah[78] Survivor of the Great Flood
4 Hud هُود
Eber? [79] [79] c.2400 BC[80] ʿĀd tribe [81] Merchant
5 Saleh صَالِح
Selah? [82] [82] Thamud tribe[83] Camel breeder
6 Ibrahim إِبْرَاهِيم
Abraham [84] [85] [86] [77] Scrolls of Abraham[56] Migration of the Jews to Iraq The people of Iraq & Syria[87] Builder of the Kaaba
7 Lut لُوط
Lot [88] [89] The people of Lot[90] (Sodom and Gomorrah) Historian and traveller
8 Ismail إِسْمَاعِيل
Ishmael [91] [91] Pre-Islamic Arabia (Mecca) Founder of the Arabian people
9 Ishaq إِسْحَاق
Isaac [92] Palestine Founders of the Israelite people
10 Yaqub يَعْقُوب
Jacob [92] Twelve Tribes of Israel Twelve Tribes of Israel
11 Yusuf يُوسُف
Joseph [93] [94] Egypt Inventor
12 Ayyub أَيُّوب
Job [93] Edom Known for his patience
13 Shuʿayb شُعَيْب
Jethro? [95] [95] Midian[96] Shepherd
14 Musa مُوسَىٰ
Moses [97] [97] [75][76] [77] Tawrah (Torah); Scrolls of Moses[48] c.1400s BCE – c.1300s BCE, or c.1300s BCE – c.1200s BCE Pharaoh and his establishment[98] Challenged the Pharaoh; lead the migration back to Israel
15 Harun هَارُون
Aaron [99] [97] Pharaoh and his establishment Vizier, brother of Moses
16 Dawud دَاوُۥد \ دَاوُود
David [73] [73] Zabur (Psalms) [100] c.1000s BCE – c.971 BCE Jerusalem Military commander, second king of Israel
17 Sulayman سُلَيْمَان
Solomon [73] c.971 BCE – c.931 BCE Jerusalem Copperworker, third and last king of the United Monarchy; built the First Temple; Son of Dawud
18 Ilyas إِلْيَاس
Elijah [73] [101] The people of Ilyas[102] Silk weaver
19 Alyasa ٱلْيَسَع
Elisha [73] Samaria,Eastern Arabia, & Persia
20 Yunus يُونُس
Jonah [73] [103] The people of Younis[104] Swallowed by giant fish
21 Dhu al-Kifl ذُو ٱلْكِفْل
[110] Babylon Identity still unknown.
22 Zakariyya زَكَرِيَّا
Zechariah [73] Jerusalem Father of Yahya; was assassinated
23 Yahya يَحْيَىٰ
John the Baptist [111] Jerusalem Was assassinated
24 Isa عِيسَىٰ
Jesus [112] [113] [77] [75][76] Injil (Gospel) [114] c.4 BCE – c.30 CE The Children of Israel[115] The Messiah
25 Muhammad مُحَمَّد
Muhammad [116][117] [118] [86] [77] Quran[119] 571 – 632 All humanity and jinn[120] Shepherd, merchant, founder of Islam; Seal of the Prophets

Figures whose prophethood is debated

Figures whose prophethood is debated
Name Arabic


EquivalentSent toNote
Shayth[121] شيث


Seth Mankind[122] He is not mentioned in the Quran, but he is mentioned in Hadith, and is revered within Islamic tradition.
Kaleb كالب


Caleb Israel In the Quran, Caleb is mentioned in the 5th surah of the Quran (Q5:20-26).
Yūsha' bin Nūn يُوشَعُ


Joshua Israel[123][124] Yusha (Joshua) is not mentioned by name in the Quran, but his name appears in other Islamic literature and in multiple Hadith. In the Quranic account of the conquest of Canaan, Joshua and Caleb are referenced, but not named, as two men, on whom God "had bestowed His grace". Yusha is regarded by most scholars as to the prophetic successor to Musa (Moses). Joshua is the assistant of Moses when he visits al Khidr, and according to the Torah and the Bible, he was one of the two tribe messengers, along with Caleb that brought news that Jerusalem was habitable for the Jews. Joshua is also Moses' successor as the leader of the Jews, who led them to settle in Israel after Moses' death. Joshua (Yusha) entering into Jerusalem is also mentioned in the Hadith.
Khidr ٱلْخَضِر


Unknown, sometimes identified as Melchizedek, and sometimes equated with Elijah[125] The Quran also mentions the mysterious Khidr (but does not name him), identified at times with Melchizedek, who is the figure that Moses accompanies on one journey. Although most Muslims regard him as an angel or enigmatic saint,[129] some see him as a prophet as well.[130]
Luqman لقمان


- The Quran mentions the sage Luqman in the chapter named after him, but does not clearly identify him as a prophet. The most widespread Islamic belief[133] views Luqman as a saint, but not as a messenger, however, other Muslims regard Luqman as a messenger as well.[134] The Arabic term wali is commonly translated into English as "Saint". This should not be confused with the Christian tradition of sainthood.
Samuil صموئيل


Samuel Not mentioned by name, only referred to as a messenger/prophet sent to the Israelites and who anoints Saul as a king.[123][124]
Talut طالوت


Saul[135] or Gideon Some Muslims refer to Saul as Talut, and believe that he was the commander of Israel. Other scholars, however, have identified Talut as Gideon. According to the Qur'an, Talut was chosen by Samuel to lead them into war. Talut led the Israelites to victory over the army of Goliath, who was killed by Dawud (David). According some, Saul is not considered a prophet, but a divinely appointed king.[137]
Irmīyyah[138] إرْميا


Jeremiah Israel[139] He does not appear in the Quran or any canonical hadith, but his narrative is fleshed out in Muslim literature and exegesis, moreover some non-canonical hadith and tafsirs narrate that the Parable of the Hamlet in Ruins is about Irmiya.[140]
Hizqil حزقيل


Ezekiel Babylon He is often identified as being the same figure as Dhul-Kifl,[141] Although not mentioned in the Qur'an by the name, Muslim scholars, both classical[142] and modern[143] have included Ezekiel in lists of the prophets of Islam.
Daniyal[144] دانيال


Daniel Babylon[145] Usually considered by Muslims to be a prophet, but he is not mentioned in the Qur'an, nor in Sunni Muslim hadith, but he is a prophet according to Shia Muslim hadith.[146][147]
Dhu al-Qarnayn ذُو ٱلْقَرْنَيْن

(Ḏū al-Qarnayn)

Unknown (Some of the theories about his identity include: Alexander the Great,[148][149] Cyrus the Great,[150] Imru'l-Qays,[151] Messiah ben Joseph,[152] Darius the Great,[153] Oghuz Khagan[154]) He appears in the Quran[Quran 18:83–101] as one who travels to east and west and erects a barrier between mankind and Gog and Magog (called Ya'juj and Ma'juj).[155]
Uzair عزير


Ezra Israel He is mentioned in the Quran,[156] but he is not specified to have been a prophet, although many Islamic scholars hold Uzair to be one of the prophets.[157][158]
Imran عمران


Joachim Israel The Family of Imran (Arabic: آل عمران) is the 3rd chapter of the Quran. Imran, not to be confused with Amram,[159] is Arabic for the biblical figure Joachim, the father of Mary and maternal grandfather of Jesus.
Maryam مَرْيَم


Mary Israel Some scholars[160][161] regard Maryam (Mary) as a messenger and a prophetess, since God sent her a message through an angel and because she was a vessel for divine miracles. Islamic belief regards her as one of the holiest of women, but the matter of her prophethood continues to be debated.[162]

To believe in God's messengers (Rusul) means to be convinced that God sent men as guides to fellow human beings and jinn (khalq) to guide them to the truth.

    Other persons

    The Quran mentions 25 prophets by name but also tells that God sent many other prophets and messengers, to all the different nations that have existed on Earth. Many verses in the Quran discuss this:

    • "We did aforetime send messengers before thee: of them, there are some whose story We have related to thee, and some whose story We have not related to thee...."[163]
    • "For We assuredly sent amongst every People a messenger, ..."[164]

    In the Quran

    • Sons of Jacob: These men are sometimes not considered to be prophets, although most exegesis scholars consider them to be prophets, citing the hadith of Muhammad and their status as prophets in Judaism. The reason that some do not consider them as prophets is because of their behavior with Yusuf (Joseph) and that they lied to their father.
    • Three persons of the town: These three unnamed person, who were sent to the same town, are referenced in chapter 36 of the Quran.[165]

    In Islamic literature

    Numerous other people have been mentioned by scholars in the Hadith, exegesis, commentary. These people include:

    Prophethood in Ahmadiyya

    The Ahmadiyya Community does not believe that messengers and prophets are different individuals. They interpret the Quranic words warner (nadhir), prophet, and messenger as referring to different roles that the same divinely appointed individuals perform. Ahmadiyya distinguish only between law-bearing prophets and non-law-bearing ones. They believe that although law-bearing prophethood ended with Muhammad, non-law-bearing prophethood subordinate to Muhammad continues.[171][172] The Ahmadiyya Community recognizes Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908) as a prophet of God and the promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi of the latter days.[173] The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement rejects his status as a prophet, instead considering him to be a renewer of the faith.[172] However, all other Muslims and their scholars argue that the Ahmadiyya community are not Muslim.[174][175][172]

    See also



    1. Quran 10:47 Quran 10:47 (Translated by Muhammad A. S. Abdel Haleem)
    2. "Qur'an: The Word of God | Religious Literacy Project". Harvard Divinity School. Archived from the original on 6 October 2018. Retrieved 6 October 2018.
    3. "BBC - Religions - Islam: Basic articles of faith". Archived from the original on 13 August 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2018.
    4. Campo, Juan Eduardo (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. pp. 559–560. ISBN 9780816054541.
    5. Denffer, Ahmad von (1985). Ulum al-Qur'an : an introduction to the sciences of the Qur an (Repr. ed.). Islamic Foundation. p. 37. ISBN 978-0860371328.
    6. Understanding the Qurán - Page xii, Ahmad Hussein Sakr - 2000
    7. Quran 15:9
    8. The Hebrew root nun-vet-alef ("navi") is based on the two-letter root nun-vet which denotes hollowness or openness; to receive transcendental wisdom, one must make oneself "open". Cf. Rashbam's comment to Genesis 20:7
    9. Uri Rubin, "Prophets and Prophethood", Encyclopedia of the Qur'an
    10. Exodus 3:13–14, 4:13
    11. Isaiah 6:8
    12. Jeremiah 1:7
    13. A. J. Wensinck, "Rasul", Encyclopaedia of Islam
    14. Strong's Concordance
    15. According to the Vilna Gaon, based on the opinion that Nechemyah died in Babylon before 9th Tevet 3448 (313 BCE). Nechemya was governor of Persian Judea under Artaxerxes I of Persia in the 5th century BCE. The Book of Nehemiah describes his work in rebuilding Jerusalem during the Second Temple period. Gaon, Vilna. "Babylonian Talmud". San.11a, Yom.9a/Yuch.1.14/Kuz.3.39, 65, 67/Yuch.1/Mag.Av.O.C.580.6. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
    16. Hebrews 3:1; John 17:3; Matthew 11:10; Mark 1:2; Ephesians 3:5, 4:11; First Epistle to the Corinthians 28:12
    17. Albert Barnes under Malachi 2:7 and 3:1
    18. Kazmi, Yadullah (1998). "THE NOTION OF HISTORY IN THE QUR'ĀN AND HUMAN DESTINY". Islamic Studies. 37: 183–200.
    19. Wheeler, Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, "Prophets"
    20. Quran 3:67
    21. Quran 2:123–133
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    23. The Origin and the Overcoming of Evil and Suffering in the World Religions. Springer Netherlands. 2013. ISBN 9789401597890.
    24. al-Shaykh al-Saduq (1982). A Shiite Creed. Fyzee (3rd ed.). WOFIS. OCLC 37509593.
    25. Brown, Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought, 1996: p.60
    26. Abu l-Lait as-Samarqandi's Comentary on Abu Hanifa al-Fiqh al-absat Introduction, Text and Commentary by Hans Daiber Islamic concept of Belief in the 4th/10th Century Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa p. 243-245
    27. Brown, Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought, 1996: p.61
    28. Schimmel, And Muhammad is His Messenger, 56-60. "The polemic of al-Baqillani (d.1012) show that the doctrine was in wide circulation during the ninth century." cited in Brown, Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought, 1996: p.61
    29. Quran 4:69
    30. Quran 7:27
    31. Quran 22:49–133
    32. Rosskeen Gibb, Hamilton Alexander; Pellat, Charles; Schacht, Joseph; Lewis, Bernard (1973). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill. p. 84.
    33. Al-Amriki, Yusuf Talal Ali; Ullah, Qazi Thanaa (1985). Essential Hanafi Handbook of Fiqh. Lahore, Pakistan: Kazi Publications. pp. 23–25.
    34. Wheeler, Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, "Noah"
    35. "Surah Maryam 19:12". Retrieved 10 August 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
    36. Quran 19:30–33
    37. Stowasser, Barbara Freyer, 1935-2012. (1994). Women in the Quran, traditions, and interpretation. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195084801. OCLC 29844006.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
    38. Ali, Kecia (2017). "Destabilizing Gender, Reproducing Maternity: Mary in the Qurʾān". Journal of the International Qur'anic Studies Association. 2: 89–109. doi:10.5913/jiqsa.2.2017.a005. ISSN 2474-8390. JSTOR 10.5913/jiqsa.2.2017.a005.
    39. Radtke, B., Lory, P., Zarcone, Th., DeWeese, D., Gaborieau, M., F. M. Denny, Françoise Aubin, J. O. Hunwick and N. Mchugh, "Walī", in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W. P. Heinrichs.
    40. Lawson, Todd (1999). "Duality, Opposition and Typology in the Qur'an: The Apocalyptic Substrate". Journal of Quranic Studies. 10: 23–49.
    41. Richter, Rick (2011). Comparing the Qur'an and the Bible: What They Really Say about Jesus, Jihad, and More. Baker Books. pp. 18–21. ISBN 9780801014024.
    42. The Cambridge companion to Muḥammad. Brockopp, Jonathan E., 1962-. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2010. ISBN 9780511781551. OCLC 723454970.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
    43. Ernst, Carl (2011). How to Read the Qur'an: A New Guide, with Select Translations. The University of North Carolina Press. p. 35. ISBN 9781469609768.
    44. Burton, John (1990). The Sources of Islamic Law: Islamic Theories of Abrogation (PDF). Edinburgh University Press. p. 165. ISBN 0-7486-0108-2. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
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    46. Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, Cyril Glasse, "Holy Books"
    47. Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, Cyril Glasse
    48. Quran 53:36
    49. Quran 87:18–19
    50. Quran 5:44
    51. Encyclopedia of Islam, "Psalms"
    52. Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Holy Quran: Text, Translation and Commentary; Martin Lings, Mecca; Abdul Malik, In Thy Seed
    53. Quran 3:184
    54. Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Holy Quran: Text, Translation and Commentary, Appendix: "On the Injil"
    55. Encyclopedia of Islam, "Injil"
    56. Quran 87:19
    57. Marmaduke Pickthall, The Meaning of the Glorious Quran; Abdullah Yusuf Ali, The Holy Quran: Text, Translation and Commentary
    58. Abdullah Yusuf Ali, The Holy Quran: Text, Translation and Commentary
    59. Numbers 21:14
    60. Quran 3:184 and 35:25
    61. Quran 26:83
    62. [Quran 10:22]
    63. Quran 28:14
    64. Quran 2:251
    65. Quran 21:74
    66. Quran 19:14
    67. Quran 3:48
    68. Saeed, Abdullah (1999). "Rethinking 'Revelation' as a Precondition for Reinterpreting the Qur'an: A Qur'anic Perspective". Journal of Qur'anic Studies. 1: 93–114. doi:10.3366/jqs.1999.1.1.93.
    69. Morgan, Diane (2010). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. ABC-CLIO. p. 38. ISBN 9780313360251. Retrieved 24 June 2015. all prophet are messengers but not all messengers are prophets.
    70. Quran 2:31 Quran 2:31
    71. Quran 4:1 Quran 4:1
    72. Quran 19:56 Quran 19:56
    73. Quran 6:89
    74. Quran 26:107 Quran 26:107
    75. Quran 46:35
    76. Quran 33:7
    77. Quran 42:13
    78. Quran 26:105 Quran 26:105
    79. Quran 26:125
    80. "Hud (prophet)". Retrieved 26 March 2022.
    81. Quran 7:65
    82. Quran 26:143
    83. Quran 7:73
    84. Quran 19:41
    85. Quran 9:70
    86. Quran 2:124
    87. Quran 22:43
    88. Quran 6:86
    89. Quran 37:133
    90. Quran 7:80
    91. Quran 19:54
    92. Quran 19:49
    93. Quran 4:89
    94. Quran 40:34
    95. Quran 26:178
    96. Quran 7:85
    97. Quran 20:47
    98. Quran 43:46
    99. Quran 19:53
    100. Quran 17:55
    101. Quran 37:123
    102. Quran 37:124
    103. Quran 37:139
    104. Quran 10:98
    105. "The Prophets". Islam. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
    106. "Buda'nın Peygamber Efendimizi bin yıl önceden müjdelediği doğru mudur?". Sorularla İslamiyet (in Turkish). 26 January 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
    107. "Buda Peygamber mi?". Ebubekir Sifil (in Turkish). 30 January 2006. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
    108. Dr. Mustafa Khattab, The Clear Quran, 38:48 Footnote: "Scholars are in disagreement as to whether Ⱬul-Kifl was a prophet or just a righteous man. Those who maintain that he was a prophet identify him with various Biblical prophets such as Ezekiel, Isaiah, and Obadiah."
    109. Yuksel, Edip; al-Shaiban, Layth Saleh; Schulte-Nafeh, Martha (2007). Quran: A Reformist Translation. United States of America: Brainbow Press. ISBN 978-0-9796715-0-0. Recall Ishmael, Elisha, and Isaiah; all are among the best. (38:48)
    110. Quran 21:85–86
    111. Quran 3:39
    112. Quran 19:30
    113. Quran 4:171
    114. Quran 57:27
    115. Quran 61:6
    116. Page 50 "As early as Ibn Ishaq (85-151 AH) the biographer of Muhammad, the Muslims identified the Paraclete - referred to in John's ... "to give his followers another Paraclete that may be with them forever" is none other than Muhammad."
    117. Quran 33:40
    118. Quran 33:40
    119. Quran 42:7
    120. "Surat Al-'Anbya' [21:107] - The Noble Qur'an - القرآن الكريم". Retrieved 12 August 2021.
    121. Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, "Adam"
    122. Ibn Kathir, Al-Bidāya wa-n-nihāya
    123. Abdullah Yusuf Ali, The Holy Qur'an: Text, Translation and Commentary, Note 278 to verse 246: "This was Samuel. In his time Israel had suffered from much corruption within and many reverses without. The Philistines had made a great attack and defeated Israel with great slaughter. The Israelites, instead of relying on Faith and their own valor and cohesion, brought out their most sacred possession, the Ark of the Covenant, to help them in the fight. But the enemy captured it, carried it away, and retained it for seven months. The Israelites forgot that wickedness cannot screen itself behind a sacred relic. Nor can a sacred relic help the enemies of the faith. The enemy found that the Ark brought nothing but misfortune for themselves, and were glad to abandon it. It apparently remained twenty years in the village (qarya) of Yaarim (Kirjath-jeafim): I. Samuel, 7:2. Meanwhile, the people pressed Samuel to appoint them a king. They thought that a king would cure all their ills, whereas what was wanting was a spirit of union and discipline and a readiness on their part to fight in the cause of Allah."
    124. Quran Search Engine, Ayat Search Samuel.Phonetic Search Engine. القرآن الكريم in Arabic, Urdu, English Translation Archived 2012-05-07 at the Wayback Machine Al-Baqara [2:247, 248 & 251]
    125. Al-Tabari (1991). The History of al-Tabari. Albany: State University of New York. p. 3.
    126. M. C. Lyons The Arabian Epic: Volume 1, Introduction: Heroic and Oral Story-telling Cambridge University Press 2005 ISBN 9780521017381 p. 46
    127. Al-Kulayni, Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Ya’qub (2015). Kitab al-Kafi. South Huntington, NY: The Islamic Seminary Inc. ISBN 9780991430864.
    128. İmam Muhammed bin Muhammed bin Süleyman er-Rudani, Büyük Hadis Külliyatı, Cem'ul-fevaid min Cami'il-usul ve Mecma'iz-zevaid, c.5., s.18
    129. Jill Caskey, Adam S. Cohen, Linda Safran Confronting the Borders of Medieval Art BRILL 2011 ISBN 978-9-004-20749-3 page 124
    130. Noegel, Scott B.; Wheeler, Brannon M. (1 April 2010). The A to Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism. Lanham: Scarecrow Press. pp. 196–197. ISBN 9781461718956. OCLC 863824465.
    131. Ibn Kathir, Hafiz, Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Dar-us-Salam Publications, 2000 (original ~1370)
    132. Al-Halawi, Ali Sayed, Stories of the Qurʼan by Ibn Kathir, Dar Al-Manarah
    133. A-Z of Prophets in Islam, B. M. Wheeler, "Luqman"
    134. Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam, Cyril Glasse, "Prophets in Islam"
    135. M. A. S. Abdel Haleem: The Qur'an, a new translation, note to 2:247.
    136. Quran 2:246–252
    137. "Saul - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Retrieved 6 October 2018.
    138. Tafsir al-Qurtubi, vol 3, p 188; Tafsir al-Qummi, vol 1, p 117.
    139. Wensinck, A.J. 1913-1936.
    140. Tafsir al-Qurtubi, vol. 3, p. 188; Tafsir al-Qummi, vol. 1, p. 117.
    141. Reisebeschreibung nach Arabian Copenhagen, 1778, ii. 264–266
    142. Ibn Kutayba, Ukasha, Tabari, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Ishaq, Masudi, Kisa'i, Balami, Thalabi and many more have all recognized Ezekiel as a prophet.
    143. The greatest depth to the figure is given by Abdullah Yusuf Ali, in his commentary; his commentary's note 2743: "If we accept "Dhul al Kifl" to be not an epithet, but an Arabicised form of "Ezekiel", it fits the context, Ezekiel was a prophet in Israel who was carried away to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar after his second attack on Jerusalem (about BCE 599). His Book is included in the English Bible (Old Testament). He was chained and bound and put into prison, and for a time he was dumb. He bore all with patience and constancy and continued to reprove boldly the evils in Israel. In a burning passage, he denounces false leaders in words that are eternally true: "Woe be to the shepherds of Israel that do feed themselves! Should not the shepherds feed the flocks? Ye eat the fat, and ye clothe you with the wool, ye kill them that are fed: but ye feed not the flock. The diseased have ye not strengthened, neither have ye healed that which was sick, neither have ye bound up that which was broken ...... etc. (Ezekiel, 34:2–4)."
    144. Wheeler, B. M. "Daniel". Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism. Daniel is not mentioned by name in the Quran but there are accounts of his prophethood in later Muslim literature...
    145. Tabari, i, 665-668, 717
    146. A-Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, B.M. Wheeler, Daniel
    147. "21. The Ethos of Prophet Daniel". 8 June 2015.
    148. Stoneman 2003, p. 3.
    149. Watt 1978, p. 127.
    150. Azad 1990, p. 205.
    151. Ball 2002, p. 97-98.
    152. Wasserstrom 2014, p. 61-62.
    153. Pearls from Surah Al-Kahf: Exploring the Qur'an's Meaning, Yasir Qadhi Kube Publishing Limited, 4 Mar 2020, ISBN 9781847741318
    154. "Oğuz Kağan Aslında Zülkarneyn Peygamber mi?". ON ALTI YILDIZ (in Turkish). Retrieved 9 February 2021.
    155. Netton 2006, p. 72.
    156. Quran 9:30
    157. Ashraf, Shahid (2005). "Prophets 'Uzair, Zakariya and Yahya (PBUT)". Encyclopaedia of Holy Prophet and Companions
    158. Ibn Kathir. "'Uzair (Ezra)". Stories of the Quran.
    159. A. J. Wensinck (Penelope Johnstone), "Maryam" in C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W. P. Heinrichs & Ch. Pellat (Eds.), The Encyclopaedia Of Islam (New Edition), 1991, Volume VI, p. 630. Maryam is called a sister of Hārūn (sūra XIX, 29), and the use of these three names 'Imrān, Hārūn, and Maryam has led to the supposition that the Kur'ān does not clearly distinguish between the two Maryams, of the Old and the New Testaments. The Kur'ān names two families as being specially chosen: those of Ibrāhim and of 'Imrān (sūra III, 32). It is the family of 'Imrān, important because of Moses and Aaron, to which Maryam belongs. It is not necessary to assume that these kinship links are to interpret in modern terms. The words "sister" and "daughter", like their male counterparts, in Arabic usage, can indicate extended kinship, descendants, or spiritual affinity. This second 'Imrān, together with Harun, can be taken as purely Kur'ānic... Muslim tradition is clear that there are eighteen centuries between the Biblical 'Amram and the father of Marya.
    160. Farooq, Mohammad Omar. "Imam Ibn Hazm: On Prophethood of Women". Archived from the original on 12 March 2005.
    161. Ibrahim, Mohammed Zayki (2015). "Ibn Ḥazm's theory of prophecy of women: Literalism, logic, and perfection". Intellectual Discourse. IIUM Press. 23 (1): 76–77. CiteSeerX eISSN 2289-5639. ISSN 0128-4878.
    162. Beyond The Exotic: Women's Histories in Islamic Societies, p. 402. Ed. Amira El-Azhary Sonbol. Syracuse University Press, 2005. ISBN 9780815630555
    163. Quran 40:78
    164. Quran 16:36
    165. Quran 36:13–21
    166. The Holy Quran: Text, Translation and Commentary, Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Note 364: "Examples of the Prophets slain were: "the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias, son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar" (Matt. 23:35)
    167. A-Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, Appendix: "List of Prophets in Islam"
    168. Abdullah Yusuf Ali refers to Hosea 8:14 for his notes on Q. 5:60
    169. Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, B. M. Wheeler, "Appendix II"
    170. Women in the Qur'ān, Traditions, and Interpretation. Oxford University Press. 1994. pp. 68–69.
    171. Brand, Alexa (2016). "Placing the Marginalized Ahmadiyya in Context with the Traditional Sunni Majority". Journal of Mason Graduate Research. 3 (3): 122–123. doi:10.13021/G8730T. ISSN 2327-0764. Archived from the original on 6 October 2018 via Mason Publishing Journals (at George Mason University).
    172. "Ahmadis - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Retrieved 6 October 2018.
    173. "Mirza Ghulam Ahmad | Biography & Facts". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 6 October 2018.
    174. Ahmad, Mirzā Ghulām (September 1904). "My Claim to Promised Messiahship". Review of Religions. 3 (9). ISSN 0034-6721. As reproduced in Ahmad, Mirzā Ghulām (January 2009). "My Claim to Promised Messiahship" (PDF). Review of Religions. 104 (1): 16. ISSN 0034-6721. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
    175. "The Ahmadiyyah Movement - Islamic Studies - Oxford Bibliographies - obo". Retrieved 6 October 2018.


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