Influenced by Al-Afghani's modernist interpretations one Muhammad Abduh, a Mufti of Egypt revisited then contemporary Islamic thought with his ijtihad post 1899AD in his tafsir al Manar, expressed that, wherever Quran seemed contradictory and irrational to logic and science , must be understood as reflecting the Arab vision of the world, as written with available 7th century intellectual level of Arabs; all verses referring to superstitions like witchcraft and evil eye be explained as expressions of then Arab beliefs; and miraculous events and deeds in Quran be rationally explained just as metaphors or allegories.
- Braswell, George W. (2000). What You Need to Know about Islam & Muslims. B&H Publishing Group. ISBN 9780805418293.
- Anwar, Syed Shakeel Ahmed (2007). The Holy Quran is Infallible: A Critique of the Book "Is the Qur'an Infallible?" by 'Abdullah 'Abdal-Fadi, a Minister of Christ. Telugu Islamic Publications Trust. ISBN 9788188241736.
- Zayd, Naṣr Ḥāmid Abū (2006). Reformation of Islamic Thought: A Critical Historical Analysis. Amsterdam University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-90-5356-828-6.